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Physics版 - 锂电池特辑:迈向超级电池[物理]
相关主题
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中国电动汽车 专用电池项目进展情况一览电动汽车电池中国何去何从?(转) (转载)
相关话题的讨论汇总
话题: 电池话题: lithium话题: battery话题: 锂电池话题: batteries
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锂电池特辑1:迈向超级电池[物理]
锂离子电池,也许是下一代能源和交通问题解决的方法
1801年,伏打把他的“电堆”装置公开给拿破仑,他不可能想到两个世纪之后,他的发
明可能成为人类生活的中心。由被盐水浸泡的锌和银电极的原始电池使得小型电化学能
源-锂电池成为了现代消费电子市场的中心。
在《瓶瓶装闪电》中,科学记者森斯-费莱彻解释了锂电池的工作原理,并且对致使锂
电池盛行的研究节奏进行了描述。每年数十亿的元件生产和数十亿的美元利润,可见移
动电子市场正在繁荣。在绿色能源中,锂电池也受到了新的挑战。费莱彻描述到发展下
一代锂电池的激烈竞争,但是可能更多的人选择现有的技术。
日益减少的石油资源以及备受关注的气候变化迫使我们使用更多的替代能源,比如太阳
能、风能,也不得不用混合动力车、油电混合车以及最终的全电动汽车来替代污染的内
燃汽车。由于我们的太阳不能按照我们的要求发光,风不能按照我们的意愿吹来,这些
可再生能源的成功应用依赖于我们高效的储电能力。电化学电池,特别是锂电池,成为
了最佳选择,因为它们把化学能转变为电能效率很高并且无有毒物质释放。
玻利维亚和南美国家巨大储量的碳酸锂盐可使汽车电池制造商持续使用几个世纪。迄今
,锂电池还不切合混合动力车或电动汽车的技术要求。我们面临的挑战是超越现在化学
技术从而生产更安全、更便宜、更大能量密度的电池,这将是困难的。但是由于生态、
经济和政治的回报以至于多个国家直接在电池技术研发方面投入了惊人数额的资金。过
去十年的结果就像费莱彻说到的那样,“先进的电池如雨后春笋般涌现”。
这些激烈的竞争活动也引起了一系列的专利冲突和优先权的官司,费莱彻恰当地称之为
“锂战争”。他关注由锂电池阴极材料专利引起的多边争执,一种有橄榄石晶状结构的
锂-铁磷酸盐是最有前景的先进电极材料之一。正如他说的,这种冲突不是新近发生的
,专利争端和企图暴富的炒作自电池商业起初一直存在。
幸运的是,电池科学界避开了这种恶劣的氛围,继续取得进展。与锂-铁磷酸盐一样,
其他新型材料已经用到了电池的三个主要部件,阳极、阴极和电解液。但是仍没有轻易
做到一次充电能为一辆小型电动车通过一段合理的道路提供电力的锂电池。
亟待解决的是超级电池的能量密度至少要高于现在的两到三倍。最有希望的是锂-硫磺
和锂-空气电池,原理上可以储存5-10倍目前电池的容量。这些在概念上简单,但是实
行起来已被一些不可逾越的障碍拖延了:放电产品(多硫化物)的高溶解度;就锂硫电
池而言,电极材料的高电阻;氧电极的慢动力学;锂空气电池中锂阳极的不稳定性。
高级硫电极纳米形态学的发展,氧还原过程的阐明,使用恰当的催化剂反应速率的提升
和薄膜保护的锂电极的稳定,过去的几年已经有了突破。虽然应用之路仍然很长,但电
动汽车的竞赛已经拉开了帷幕。在电动车行业,早期在混合动力车投注中获胜的日本行
业领跑者仍是最大玩家,许多汽车制造商和电池生产商联合经营以追赶领跑的日本人。
随着将来锂需求的增加,出现了一些诸如地壳中该金属含量是否可以维持其在汽车行业
的问题。费莱彻巧妙地分析了这些争论,生动地描述了他到玻利维亚、智利参观两大主
要盐矿床的旅行,加上阿根廷的第三大盐矿床,这些都是最丰富的碳酸锂源。储量可以
持续数百年,因此即使在所有的汽车都成为混合动力或电动的这种不可能发生的情况下
,也有足够的锂来满足我们的需求。
《瓶装闪电》是对电池尖端科技和其在我们社会中的地位的引人注目的介绍。我唯一的
批评是费莱彻没有肯定美国和欧洲科学团队的工作,这些在八十年代早期开发锂离子电
池概念的人包括墨菲、阿曼德和我自己。这个领域之后十多年就沉默下来,直到上世纪
九十年代早期为了商业化的锂离子电池,日本索尼公司优化了这种想法。就像费莱彻提
到的,许多从那时已经发生了。
飞越冬雪
Technology: Charging towards the superbattery
Lithium-ion technology is bringing us closer to solving energy and transport
problems, finds Bruno
Bottled Lightning: Superbatteries, Electric Cars, and the New Lithium
Economy
When, in 1801, Alessandro Volta unveiled his 'electric pile' gadget to
Napoleon Bonaparte, he could not have imagined that, two centuries later,
his invention would be central to human life. His primitive electrical cell
of zinc and silver electrodes separated by a brine-soaked felt led to the
compact electrochemical power source that dominates modern consumer
electronics — the lithium battery.
In Bottled Lightning, science journalist Seth Fletcher explains how lithium
batteries work and describes the research steps that have led to their
ubiquity. The mobile electronics market is booming, producing billions of
units a year and billions of dollars in profits. And new challenges for
lithium batteries are opening up in green energy. Fletcher describes the
fierce competition to develop the next generation of lithium batteries, but
could have given more people their due for the existing technology.
Decreasing oil resources and concerns about climate change necessitate
greater use of alternative energy sources, such as solar and wind, and the
replacement of polluting internal-combustion cars with hybrid vehicles, plug
-in hybrid vehicles and, ultimately, fully electric vehicles. As the sun
does not always shine and the wind does not blow on command, the success of
these renewable sources depends on efficient storage. Electrochemical
batteries, lithium ones in particular, are the best option, converting
stored chemical energy into electricity with high efficiency and without
toxic emissions.
As yet, lithium batteries do not meet the technical requirements of hybrid
or electric vehicles. The challenge is to move beyond the present chemistry
to produce batteries that are safer, cheaper and have greater energy density
. This will not be easy. But the ecological, economical and political
rewards are so great that many countries are directing tremendous amounts of
funding towards research and development in battery technology. The result,
as Fletcher puts it, is that in the past decade, “advanced-battery start-
ups started popping up like mushrooms after a spring rain”.
This intense activity has also given rise to a series of patent conflicts
and legal battles over priority, which Fletcher aptly calls “lithium wars”
. He focuses on the many-sided battle for the patent of the lithium-battery
cathode material — a lithium-iron phosphate with an olivine crystal
structure that is one of the most promising advanced electrode materials. As
he says, such clashes are not new: patent disputes and get-rich-quick hype
have dogged the battery business since its inception.
Fortunately, the battery-science community has avoided this bad atmosphere
and continues to make progress. As well as lithium-iron phosphate, other
innovative materials have been used for the three main battery components of
anode, cathode and electrolyte. But there is still no lithium battery light
enough to power a small electric car over a reasonable distance on a single
charge.
Urgently needed are 'superbatteries' with energy densities at least two or
three times higher than at present. The most promising candidates are
lithium–sulphur and lithium–air batteries, which in principle should be
able to store 5–10 times the energy of today's cells. These are
conceptually simple, but their implementation has been stalled by a series
of apparently insurmountable hurdles: the high solubility of the (
polysulphide) discharge products; the high resistance of the electrode
materials in the case of lithium sulphur; the slow kinetics of the oxygen
electrode; and the instability of the lithium anode in the case of lithium
air.
There have been breakthroughs in the past few years with the development of
advanced sulphur electrode nanomorphologies, the clarification of the oxygen
reduction process, the use of appropriate catalysts for promoting its
evolution, and the stabilization of the lithium electrode by covering it
with protective films. The road to applications is still long, but the race
for the electric car has started. Many car makers are seeking joint ventures
with battery manufacturers to pursue the Japanese frontrunners who, having
won their early bet on hybrids, are still the major players in electric
vehicles.
With demand for lithium set to grow, some question whether Earth's crust
contains enough of the metal to sustain its use in vehicles. Fletcher
cleverly analyses the debate and gives vivid descriptions of his trips
to Bolivia and Chile to visit the two main salt deposits that, together
with a third in Argentina, are the richest sources of lithium carbonate. The
reserves could last for centuries, so there will be enough lithium to fill
up our tanks even in the improbable case of all cars becoming hybrid or
electric.
Bottled Lightning is a gripping introduction to this sophisticated
technology and its place in our society. My only criticism is that Fletcher
fails to credit the group of US and European scientists, including Don W.
Murphy, Michel Armand and myself, who in the early 1980s developed the
lithium-ion battery concept. The field then fell silent for more than ten
years, until the Japanese company Sony optimized the idea for the first
commercial lithium-ion battery in the early 1990s. As Fletcher notes, plenty
has happened since.
锂电池特辑2:
用电池供电的大楼
加州大学的工程学院大楼用电池供电
用电池供电的建筑
在温斯顿世界能量公司CEO的慷慨资助下,工程学院的大楼要用稀土锂电池供电了
这是革新的一步,温斯顿世界能量的创建者,董事长兼CEO向加州大学捐赠了价值250万美
元的稀土锂电池,为河滨分校的伯恩斯工程学院的一楼供电.作为回报,学院将工程学院
的大楼更名为温斯顿钟氏大楼
所捐赠的1.1兆瓦的电池组是中国的温斯顿世界能量公司研制的.目前大学正在研制"光
电池农场"用来提供清洁能源给稀土锂电池充电,这样就不用依赖太阳光或风力来给大楼
供电了.计划中整个9万平方英尺(约8000多平方米)的温斯顿钟氏大楼都由这个系统供电
除了价值250万美元的电池,钟先生还为大学捐款60万美元, 分成6等分,,用来资助伯恩
斯工程学院的系院研究移动电话,笔记本和混合驱动汽车的电池
今年早些时候,这个富有革新精神的商人赠送一千万美元给学院,支持两个教授的研究,
并在大学的环境研究技术中心建立温斯顿钟氏世界能量中心.此中心初期致力于仿生学
研究和清洁能源及能量存储技术的研发。
昨天,在加州大学河滨分校的庆祝仪式上,钟先生由他的儿子钟ZhiFan代表,他说:"温斯
顿世界能源公司很荣幸成为加州大学河滨伯恩斯工程学院的一部分.这只是我们清洁能
源合作的第一步。
锂电池特辑3:
埃斯托公司发布超级电容电池系统,锂电池业前景堪忧
如果你觉得文图里的电动车靠着晒晒太阳和下坡的时候存储点能量就能带你上下班回家
有点不靠谱,如果你觉得那种超轻便但是只能用五个小时的电动车哪儿也去不了,埃斯
托希望他们的新技术能够解决所有这些普通电池的问题,而且是秒杀,绝对的秒杀。
说到这种技术是不是真的可以实现,这家名不见经传的德州公司向人们展示他们最新的
实验成果,毫无疑问,这种技术实在让人震撼。埃斯托展示的这种系统是以钛酸钡粉末
为基础制成的电池-超级电容混合体,与目前市场上最好的锂离子电池相比,它由更高
的能量密度,更快的充电时间,而且更安全。另外,这种神奇的解决方案可以提供铅酸
电池十倍的电量,没有有毒原料没有化学危害,而且价钱只有铅酸电池的一半。此外,
埃斯托还希望与总部位于多伦多的ZENN汽车公司合作,将他们的“电气能源存储单元”
应用到汽车上。如果这种“预期”能够实现,那这种电动车行驶500英里(800公里)的
成本只有9美金,而相同的路程要耗费60美金的汽油。
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当然,这种“革命性”的产品也不乏批评者。麦克斯威尔科技公司的运输技术开发副总
吉姆•米勒说:埃斯托公司的技术必须要解决的问题是它脆弱的结构如何能够承
受汽车严酷的使用环境。我们还是对这家公司的新技术一些信心,就像他们说的,这是
他们的第一次尝试,他们会让这项技术“符合它所承诺的功能”--我们能看到这一天吗
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smallfat
If relying on sunlight and downhill routes in Venturi's uber-green Eclectic
doesn't exactly sound feasible for your everyday (and night) errands, and
your ultraportable's five hours of battery life just isn't where you think
it should be, EEStor is hoping to remedy those issues -- along with
basically every other battery-related quandary -- in one fell swoop. In
another case of "this just can't be for realz," an elusive Texas company is
coming clean about what's been happening in its labs of late, and the
proclamations are nothing short of sensational. The firm boldly states that
its one of a kind system, a "battery-ultracapacitor hybrid based on barium-
titanate powders, will dramatically outperform the best lithium-ion
batteries on the market in terms of energy density, price, charge time, and
safety." Moreover, this miracle-working solution is said to produce "ten
times" the power of lead-acid batteries at half the cost, sans the need for
"toxic materials or chemicals." Additionally, EEStor is hoping to have its
Electrical Energy Storage Unit (EESU) powering the wheels of Toronto-based
ZENN Motor vehicles, and if "estimates" are to be believed, it will only
take about $9 worth of electricity for an EESU-propelled car to travel 500
miles, compared to nearly $60 in gasoline. Of course, such a "breakthrough"
product is bound to have its fair share of naysayers, and Jim Miller, vice
president of advanced transportation technologies at Maxwell Technologies,
is indeed skeptical that EEStor's technology will be able to withstand the
unique pressures that a vehicle would place on the "brittle" structure. But
we've got to give credit to the company's vow to veer clear of hype, as it
notes that this is just the first time it has come forward to intro the
technology, and maintains that it will "meet all of its claims" -- guess we'
ll see about that, eh?
新型电极实现锂电池2分钟完成快速充电
在大部分的现代小玩意中,电池都是必要的部件,随着应用于汽车和电网,预计电池充
当的角色更为扩展。但电池也有一些局限,它无法象超级电容那样快速充电,而且随着
时间的推移,它的容量会衰减。为了克服这些限制,科学家们试验了各种各样的材料,
有时候确实也获得了令人注目的成功。周末,一份论文发表了一种可以实现电池快速充
电的技术。这种技术使用了与先前不同的方法和技术,能用于锂基和镍基电池。
先前的方法主要针对锂电池,专注于克服电池的充电速度:离子能以多快的速度在电池
材料中运动。研究者过去都是通过改变锂电池的主要原料——磷酸铁锂(LiFePO4)—
—的结构来实现锂离子在电池材料中的快速传递的。而作者则通过提高电极的接触面,
使其可以与离子进行快速的电荷交换,实现电池的快速充电。
新的方法采用了完全不同的技术路线,同样获得了快速充电的效果。来自伊利诺斯大学
的论文作者们并不关心离子在电池材料中的运动速度,他们致力于减少离子运动到电极
上所行走的距离。他们指出,离子的运行时间与距离的平方成正比,所以减少距离可以
获得引人注目的效果。为减少这段距离,他们专注于开发一种结构精密的阴极材料。
他们的制作过程其实相当简单,适合进行大规模生产。开始的时候,他们采用聚苯乙烯
小球汇聚的球团,通过调整这些小球的大小(他们选用直径在1.8微米到466纳米之间的
小球),可以调整电极的空间特性。当小球的排列符合要求之后,将获得一种类似猫眼
石(一种硅元素的结构)的结构,用加强材料将这种排列结构固定下来。然后,在猫眼
石结构表面用电沉积法镀上一层镍膜,之后把猫眼石蚀刻掉,再经过电解抛光,增加这
些镍膜空隙度。
当整个过程完成后,空隙度达到94%,刚好低于96%的极限水平。这样一来,作者们就获
得了一团包含很多空间的镍丝网。
这些空间将用来填充电池材料,可以是镍金属氢化物,也可以是掺杂锂的二氧化锰。作
者称这种布局具备三大优点:电镀网孔有利于离子的快速运动,离子到达电极的距离缩
短,电极导电性提高。这些优点的叠加使得做出来的电池在充放电速度上可以与超级电
容相媲美。
对于镍氢电池,这种电池可以在2.7秒的时间内放出标准电量的75%,而充满90%的电量
只需要20秒。按这样的强度经过100次充放循环,电池性能还可以保持稳定。锂电池表
现稍微差一点,但也相当了不起。标准电量的75%可以实现高速放电,而经过1000次循
环后,还能保持三分之一的存储能力。
完全用这种电极制作的锂电池,能做到1分钟充满75%的电量,充满90%的电量只需要2分
钟。
作者称这种技术还有其他一些优异的特性,可以实现大规模生产,除了应用于上文提到
的锂材料和镍材料,它可以应用于更多的电池材料。先前的磷酸铁锂材料也能结合采用
这种技术。通过专门设计,使电池材料与这种电极匹配,可以进一步提升电池性能。
当然,使用这么高的速度给电池充电,我们最终不可避免将面临提供大电流的问题。对
于类似手机上使用的小电池来说,这样快速充电表现优异,但是如果想用于对电动汽车
快速充电,那将是一项挑战。
kentwin
Batteries are an essential part of most modern gadgets, and their role is
expected to expand as they're incorporated into vehicles and the electric
grid itself. But batteries can't move charge as quickly as some competing
devices like supercapacitors, and their performance tends to degrade
significantly with time. That has sent lots of materials science types into
the lab, trying to find ways to push back these limits, sometimes with
notable success. Over the weekend, there was another report on a technology
that enables fast battery charging. The good news is that it uses a
completely different approach and technology than the previous effort, and
can work with both lithium- and nickel-based batteries.
The previous work was lithium-specific, and focused on one limit to a
battery's recharge rate: how quickly the lithium ions could move within the
battery material. By providing greater access to the electrodes, the authors
allowed more ions to quickly exchange charge, resulting in a battery with a
prodigious charging rate. The researchers increased lithium's transport
within the battery by changing the structure of the battery's primary
material, LiFePO4.
The new work also gets fast charges, but by a rather different route. The
authors, from the University of Illinois, don't focus on the speed of the
lithium ions in the battery; instead, they attempt to reduce the distance
the ions have to travel before reaching an electrode. As they point out, the
time involved in lithium diffusion increases with the square of the
distance travelled, so cutting that down can have a very dramatic effect. To
reduce this distance, they focus on creating a carefully structured cathode
.
The process by which they do this is fairly simple, and lends itself to mass
production. They started with a collection of spherical polystyrene pellets
. By adjusting the size of these pellets (they used 1.8181;m and 466nm
pellets), they could adjust the spacing of the electrode features. Once the
spheres were packed in place, a layer of opal (a form of silica) was formed
on top of them, locking the pattern in place with a more robust material.
After that, a layer of nickel was electrodeposited on the opal, which was
then etched away. The porosity of the nickel layer was then increased using
electropolishing.
When the process was done, the porosity—a measure of the empty space in the
structure—was about 94 percent, just below the theoretical limit of 96
percent. The authors were left with a nickel wire mesh that was mostly empty
space.
Into these voids went the battery material, either nickel-metal hydride
(NiMH) or a lithium-treated manganese dioxide. The arrangement provides
three major advantages, according to the authors: an electrolyte pore
network that enables rapid ion transport, a short diffusion distance for the
ions to meet the electrodes, and an electrode with high electron
conductivity. All of these make for a battery that acts a lot like a
supercapacitor when it comes to charge/discharge rates.
With the NiMH battery material, the electrodes could deliver 75 percent of
the normal capacity of the battery in 2.7 seconds; it only took 20 seconds
to recharge it to 90 percent of its capacity, and these values were stable
for 100 charge/discharge cycles. The lithium material didn't work quite as
well, but was still impressive. At high rates of discharge, it could handle
75 percent of its normal capacity, and still stored a third of its regular
capacity when discharged at over a thousand times the normal rate.
A full-scale lithium battery made with the electrode could be charged to 75
percent within a minute, and hit 90 percent within two minutes.
There are a few nice features of this work. As the authors noted, the
electrodes are created using techniques that can scale to mass production,
and the electrodes themselves could work with a variety of battery materials
, such as the lithium and nickel used here. It may also be possible to merge
them with the LiFePO4 used in the earlier work. A fully integrated system,
with materials designed to work specifically with these electrodes, could
increase their performance even further.
Of course, that ultimately pushes us up against the issue of supplying
sufficient current in the short time frames needed to charge the battery
this fast. It might work great for a small battery, like a cell phone, but
could create challenges if we're looking to create a fast-charge electric
car.
一种新奈米结构让锂电池能够更快的充电
新技术让锂电池的充电变得更加快捷
伊利诺伊大学的一个研究团队拥有一项可能会对电动汽车和其它电子设备有深远影响的
技术。
该团队由材料工程科学领域的保罗•布劳恩教授领导,他们发现了让锂电池快速
充电的技术,在手机、笔记本电脑以及植入式心脏除颤器等电子设备中锂电池得到广泛
应用。锂电池也用于电动汽车,一次充电在家中需要一个晚上的时间,就是在电动车充
电站也需一个小时来完成充电。
布劳恩的研究成果发表在《自然-纳米技术》在线版上,保罗表示电动汽车的充电时间
与加满一油箱汽油的时间相当。像手机这类较小的电子元件充电时间不超过一分钟。“
我们实验室的电池组能够在数十秒中完成充电”他说。
电池充电时,能量从阴极移至阳极。当电池释放电能或放电时,能量以相反的方向迁移
,从阳极移至阴极。保罗的团队为电池的阴极设计了一种三维的奈米结构能使得电池的
充电速度比传统的电池快的多。
传统的锂离子以及金属氢化物镍蓄电池中所含有的活性物质被放置在一个薄膜中。这个
薄膜为了让电池能够更快地充电,但是这以其最终会明显退化为代价。因为薄膜很薄,
它不能存储很多能量。这种低密度的能量导致它快速退化。
布劳恩的发明是在这个薄膜外包裹一种三维结构使得它既能快速的充电,并且又能存储
更多的能量。这种三维结构是利用微小的球体制作成薄膜的外涂层。球体之间的空隙用
金属填充。它们随后融合成可渗透海绵状的表面。接下来,那些小孔变大并且该结构覆
盖了薄膜。
布劳恩表示该奈米结构不能避免退化,但是该处理会延迟退化,因为它的效率是传统电
池的10倍。他还希望这种高效能够在低温的环境中良好的运行,虽然他的团队还没有在
此环境中开展研究。
他表示,想让电动汽车的电池充电时间与加满一油箱汽油的时间相当的速度则需要对现
行的基础设施结构进行改造。充电站需要提供足够的电能,但是保罗表示最终需要有相
应的激励机制来促进该技术的发展。
虽然该奈米结构提高了电池20-30百分点的储电能力,布劳恩表示该结构最显著的特点
是提高了充电速率。
布劳恩团队对该奈米结构开展了两年的研究。他表示该奈米结构应用于电池的阴极,下
一步是促进电池的阳极,并促进电池的储电能力。
遥探
New Structure Allows Lithium Ion Batteries to Get a Quicker Charge
A new technology could create a much more rapid charging time for lithium
ion batteries
A research group at the University of Illinois has developed technology that
may have lasting implications for electric vehicles (EVs) and other
electronics.
The group, led by Paul Braun, a professor of material sciences and
engineering, has come up with technology that creates a much more rapid
charging time for lithium-ion batteries, which power electronics like
cellphones, laptops and defibrillators. Lithium-ion batteries also power EVs
, which can take all night to charge at home and up to an hour to charge at
EV stations.
Braun's findings, published last week in an online version of the journal
Nature Nanotechnology, could lead to an EV charging time comparable to that
for filling a tank of gas. Smaller objects like cell phones could charge in
well under a minute, Braun said.
"We have batteries in the lab that can charge in tens of seconds," he said.
When a battery charges, energy moves between its cathode and anode. When a
battery powers a product, or discharges, energy travels the opposite way,
between its anode and cathode. Braun's group came up with a three-
dimensional nanostructure for the battery cathode that allows its batteries
to charge at a much faster rate than conventional batteries.
Conventional lithium-ion or nickel metal hydride rechargeable batteries
contain active material that is placed into a thin film. The thin film
allows batteries to charge and recharge quickly, but at the cost of
significant degrading over time. Because it's thin, the film doesn't allow
for much energy storage. This lack of density causes the rapid degrading.
Braun's invention wraps the thin film around a 3-D structure that allows
greater energy storage capacity while still rapidly charging and recharging.
The 3-D structure is assembled by coating the surface with tiny spheres.
The space between the spheres gets filled with metal. Both are then
melted together, leaving a porous, sponge-like surface. Next, the pores get
enlarged and the structure is coated with the thin film.
The nanostructure isn't immune to degrading, but this process is prolonged
because its efficiency is 10 times greater than conventional batteries,
Braun said. He also expects this greater efficiency will allow EV batteries
to work better in cold temperatures, although his group hasn't conducted
studies to verify this yet.
Getting EV batteries to charge as fast as it takes to fill a tank of gas
requires a different infrastructure than what exists today, he said.
Charging stations will need to offer sufficient power, but Braun said
developing technology should eventually create an incentive for it.
Although the nanostructure makes the batteries 20 to 30 percent denser,
Braun said the biggest improvement is the rapidity of the charging.
Braun's group worked for about two years on the nanostructure. Since the
nanostructure is applied to a battery's cathode, he said, the next step is
to study improving the anode, along with further increasing battery density.
a***e
发帖数: 27968
2
这事怎么算物理了?
不都是化学,工程么?

【在 g*********n 的大作中提到】
: 锂电池特辑1:迈向超级电池[物理]
: 锂离子电池,也许是下一代能源和交通问题解决的方法
: 1801年,伏打把他的“电堆”装置公开给拿破仑,他不可能想到两个世纪之后,他的发
: 明可能成为人类生活的中心。由被盐水浸泡的锌和银电极的原始电池使得小型电化学能
: 源-锂电池成为了现代消费电子市场的中心。
: 在《瓶瓶装闪电》中,科学记者森斯-费莱彻解释了锂电池的工作原理,并且对致使锂
: 电池盛行的研究节奏进行了描述。每年数十亿的元件生产和数十亿的美元利润,可见移
: 动电子市场正在繁荣。在绿色能源中,锂电池也受到了新的挑战。费莱彻描述到发展下
: 一代锂电池的激烈竞争,但是可能更多的人选择现有的技术。
: 日益减少的石油资源以及备受关注的气候变化迫使我们使用更多的替代能源,比如太阳

J*X
发帖数: 302
3
是不是物理不重要,关键是这货离大规模应用还有很大的距离

【在 a***e 的大作中提到】
: 这事怎么算物理了?
: 不都是化学,工程么?

L*******r
发帖数: 5448
4
这得看你怎么define大规模。portable electronics,早就大规模应用了,EV,Li-ion
永远没戏

【在 J*X 的大作中提到】
: 是不是物理不重要,关键是这货离大规模应用还有很大的距离
z*h
发帖数: 773
5
Sugar biobattery (sugar-powered enzymatic fuel cells) would replace most
lithium ion batteries due to much higher energy density, better safety,
environmentally friendly, biodegradability, and fast refilliability, etc.
Costs, performance, safety and scale-up are several key things for
evaluating future systems.
p*********g
发帖数: 22025
6
飘过~
S***p
发帖数: 19902
7
一惊,还以为进田野了。。。

【在 p*********g 的大作中提到】
: 飘过~
1 (共1页)
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