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Military版 - 数据说话:长江水深
相关主题
老不死的武汉南京长江大桥让谁窝心 zt1910年的武汉有多牛
武汉长江大桥和南京长江大桥都是老毛时代的作品中铁大桥局承建的武汉第八座长江大桥开工
南京长江大桥 陆民心中的第一京沪高铁“第一桥”大胜关长江大桥通车
48岁高龄南京长江大桥封闭大修27个月 民众争相留影老毛还是湖南人的血性
如果公交是从南京大桥坠落,乘客有生还可能中国的水路客运为什么那么弱?
南京长江大桥比武汉长江大桥差太远了武汉长江大桥迎55岁生日 被撞70余次仍然无恙
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以前武汉,把自己叫中国的芝加哥2020年实现长江航运现代化
相关话题的讨论汇总
话题: south话题: dakota话题: yangtze话题: river话题: hermes
1 (共1页)
w********2
发帖数: 632
1
长江各河段的水深是多少?
推荐于2016-12-02
长江的深度不一,以下是主航道水深:
宜 宾--兰家沱 1.8米 中国的母亲河—长江
兰家沱――娄溪沟 2.5米
娄溪沟--羊角滩 2.7米
羊角滩--白 尾 2.9米
白 尾--武 桥 3.2米 长江源流沱沱河以下依次为通天河、金沙江。金沙江以下,岷
江口至长江入海口,长2884公里(荆江裁弯取直后,缩短航程80公里,为2800余公里)
,通称长江。在通称长江的各江段又有各自的名称。
武 桥--皖河口 4.0米
皖河口――燕子矶4.5米
燕子矶--龙爪岩10.5米
在1958年,长江的武汉长江大桥一带做试验时曾测量到江中水深30多米, 在下关浦口
间曾测到40米, 在江西湖北交界处有一处叫牛关矶的地方曾经测到103米的深度,但长
江口的深度只有10米左右,有时甚至会影响到正常的通航。
w********2
发帖数: 632
2
在1958年,长江的武汉长江大桥一带做试验时曾测量到江中水深30多米, 在下关浦口
间曾测到40米, 在江西湖北交界处有一处叫牛关矶的地方曾经测到103米的深度,但长
江口的深度只有10米左右,有时甚至会影响到正常的通航。
w********2
发帖数: 632
3
本报讯 (记者 鲁勋 杨剑) 曾载入小学课本、让无数中国人引以为豪的南京长江大桥
,目前正成为讨论的焦点。
针对当前有专家提议炸掉南京长江大桥以疏通长江“黄金水道”的说法,全国人大
法律委员会副主任、中国生产力学会会长王茂林9日在江苏省发改委、南京市发改委和
中国生产力学会主办的“2006中国长江经济带生产力发展(南京)论坛”上表示,随着中
国内河航运的
迅猛发展,南京长江大桥如今已影响了长江的运行效率,但从历史文化的角度出发,摧
毁该桥的可行性不大。
上海东方早报记者采访发现,有关这个话题有三方观点:“炸桥”说,“增高”说
,“水深不够”说。
“炸桥”说:引起轩然大波
据报道,由于南京长江大桥净空高度为24米,万吨级海轮根本无法通过。而江阴长
江大桥、润扬大桥的净空高度均为50米,可通行5万吨级巴拿马散装货轮。因此,2001
年进入长江航行的国际船舶虽然超过1万艘次,但99%的船舶均停泊在南京以下港口。
去年年底,交通部前部长张春贤公开表示,由于受南京长江大桥和芜湖长江大桥通
航净空高度限制,目前万吨级海轮只能到达南京,南京到铜陵213公里可供万吨级海船
通航的深水航道得不到充分发挥。
有关专家认为,南京长江大桥等桥梁“腰斩”了长江,限制了万吨级海轮进入我国
中西部,因此提议将其炸毁,以畅通长江“黄金水道”。
该消息一经传播就引起了轩然大波。
有人质疑说,要想大船能到武汉,长江上60%的桥要炸,要想到重庆,90%的桥都要
炸,因为九江长江大桥、芜湖长江大桥、铜陵长江大桥、安庆长江大桥、鄂州长江大桥
、武汉长江二桥等净空高度都是24米。
针对当前有专家提议炸掉南京长江大桥以疏通长江“黄金水道”的说法,王茂林9
日表示,摧毁该桥的可行性不大。
王茂林表示,随着中国内河航运的迅猛发展,南京长江大桥如今已影响了长江的运
行效率。目前只有5000吨级的平底船在降下桅杆时方能通过南京长江大桥,大桥的确阻
碍了长江的运行效率。
但他同时认为,虽然炸掉南京长江大桥的成本要比改造它的成本要高,但炸桥需要
考虑相当多的因素。事实上,不仅是南京长江大桥,其上游的长江大桥也存在高度不够
的情况,“总不至于统统炸光”。
昨天,东南大学土木学院教授卫龙武接受上海东方早报记者采访时也表示,炸毁南
京长江大桥并不合适,因为大桥有其历史文化意义。
卫龙武教授说,南京长江大桥被誉为“20世纪南京唯一可与中山陵齐名的伟大建筑
”,这座公路、铁路两用桥目前仍然是国内南北交通的大动脉,而且在架构材料紧张的
情况下,炸毁大桥是一种能源的浪费。
“增高”说:技术上不成问题
王茂林认为,一个可行的办法是,在桥梁专家的精心设计下,对既存的长江大桥进
行整体改造,从而保证一定吨位轮船的通行。
无独有偶,在同一天召开的第十七届全国桥梁学术会议上,中国工程院院士、同济
大学教授项海帆也明确表示,炸掉南京长江大桥几乎没有可能。
项海帆院士说,如果要解决净空高度不够的问题,可以考虑为南京长江大桥做“接
肢”手术———让现有的桥墩向上加高12米,这样一来,既不用炸桥,又能确保万吨级
货船直达重庆港,从而充分发挥三峡水利枢纽的通航效应。
持这一想法的并非项海帆院士一人。东南大学土木学院教授卫龙武说,“维持现状
也不合适,由于大桥所处的位置为南北交通的咽喉要道,因此可以考虑将大桥升高,这
在技术上不成问题。”
“水深不够”说:“水深不够才是真正的瓶颈”
长江航道局的一位不愿具名的专家表示,大桥的净空目前并不像人们想象的那样是
阻挡海轮西进的绊脚石。
据这位专家介绍:其实建桥与航运一直以来就是一个矛盾,长江大桥的兴建基本上
都会“通了南北、阻了东西”,但在现有的大桥净空条件下,万吨级以上的海轮要在长
江通行,关键还要看水深。
这名专家说,“目前南京至芜湖的水位只有6至7米,就算没有南京长江大桥,最多
也只能保证3万吨级的空载海轮到达芜湖,但空载的话就算能够通行也没有意义;芜湖
至武汉之间水深条件可以通行万吨级船队,但单船不行,武汉以上根本无所谓,水深无
法适合万吨级以上的海轮。”
另外,由于长江水下非常复杂,不比运河,南京以上无法从根本上疏浚,因此,深
水航道治理工程也就是在长江口进行比较现实。
与这位专家观点相佐证的是,有人提出,长江水深、航宽以及航道位置是季节性的
,与江水所携带的泥沙有关,南京以上长江江面比较窄、湾道多,万吨级海轮掀起的浪
大,对长江航道里的内河船舶构成威胁,对护岸江堤的威胁更大,因此并不适合万吨级
以上的海轮。
新闻背景
长江航道发展规划
根据“十一五”规划,长江航道局将按照“深下游、畅中游、延上游”的发展思路
,确保到2010年,南京以下实现105米水深航道畅通,常年可通航25万吨级海轮和由
2000-5000吨级驳船组成的24万吨级船队;125米深水航道延伸至太仓港,可通航5万吨
级海轮;南京至安庆水深达到6米,可通航5000-10000吨级海轮或由2000吨级驳船组成
的2万-4万吨级船队;安庆至武汉水深达到45米,可较大幅度地延长5000吨级海船的通
航期;武汉至城陵矶水深达到37米,可通航由3500吨级油驳组成的万吨级油运船队,利
用自然水深可通航3000吨级海轮;重庆至宜宾水深达到27米,可通航千吨级船舶。
南京长江大桥
1968年12月29日,我国自行设计建造的双层双线、公路铁路两用桥———南京长江
大桥建成通车,并被收入当年世界公路、铁路两用桥的世界吉尼斯纪录。
南京长江大桥大大方便了长江两岸的物资交流和人员来往,成为我国南北交通的命
脉之一,对华东地区来说,更具有举足轻重的地位。
长江航运
长江是我国第一大河,干流全长6300公里,流经青、藏、川、滇、渝、鄂、湘、赣
、皖、苏、沪9省2市。
目前,长江水运通航里程达2800公里,货运量占全国内河货运量的80%,承当沿江
大型企业生产所需80%的
铁矿石、72%的原油和83%的电煤运输,拥有万吨级以上的海轮泊位近300个,内河泊位
5887个。
据介绍,长江水量是莱茵河的6倍,但目前南京以下仍不能满足5万吨级轮船的自由
航行,中游尚不能满足全年正常运输。
d****o
发帖数: 32610
4
夏天100,
冬天50

【在 w********2 的大作中提到】
: 长江各河段的水深是多少?
: 推荐于2016-12-02
: 长江的深度不一,以下是主航道水深:
: 宜 宾--兰家沱 1.8米 中国的母亲河—长江
: 兰家沱――娄溪沟 2.5米
: 娄溪沟--羊角滩 2.7米
: 羊角滩--白 尾 2.9米
: 白 尾--武 桥 3.2米 长江源流沱沱河以下依次为通天河、金沙江。金沙江以下,岷
: 江口至长江入海口,长2884公里(荆江裁弯取直后,缩短航程80公里,为2800余公里)
: ,通称长江。在通称长江的各江段又有各自的名称。

w********2
发帖数: 632
5
据报道,由于南京长江大桥净空高度为24米,万吨级海轮根本无法通过。而江阴长
江大桥、润扬大桥的净空高度均为50米,可通行5万吨级巴拿马散装货轮。因此,2001
年进入长江航行的国际船舶虽然超过1万艘次,但99%的船舶均停泊在南京以下港口。
去年年底,交通部前部长张春贤公开表示,由于受南京长江大桥和芜湖长江大桥通
航净空高度限制,目前万吨级海轮只能到达南京,南京到铜陵213公里可供万吨级海船
通航的深水航道得不到充分发挥。
有关专家认为,南京长江大桥等桥梁“腰斩”了长江,限制了万吨级海轮进入我国
中西部,因此提议将其炸毁,以畅通长江“黄金水道”。
w********9
发帖数: 8613
6
这个主题里说的很清楚了。
关键词:一地的平均水深和最深水深;一地的全年水深涨落。
http://www.mitbbs.com/article_t/Military/52573447.html
R*****5
发帖数: 4915
7
"根据“十一五”规划,长江航道局将按照“深下游、畅中游、延上游”的发展思路,
确保到2010年,南京以下实现105米水深航道畅通,常年可通航25万吨级海轮和由2000-
5000吨级驳船组成的24万吨级船队;125米深水航道延伸至太仓港,可通航5万吨级海轮
;南京至安庆水深达到6米,可通航5000-10000吨级海轮或由2000吨级驳船组成的2万-4
万吨级船队;安庆至武汉水深达到45米,可较大幅度地延长5000吨级海船的通航期;武
汉至城陵矶水深达到37米,可通航由3500吨级油驳组成的万吨级油运船队,利用自然水
深可通航3000吨级海轮;重庆至宜宾水深达到27米,可通航千吨级船舶。"
这绝壁是弱智胡写的,居然有二货还转贴当证据,LOL。
“125米深水航道延伸至太仓港,可通航5万吨级海轮;安庆至武汉水深达到45米,可较
大幅度地延长5000吨级海船的通航期;武汉至城陵矶水深达到37米,可通航由3500吨级
油驳组成的万吨级油运船队”
这他妈的全是瞎鸡巴写,居然有人会信?深度12.5米,都写成125米,基本差了10倍。看
了下原文,东方早报,LOL。这个傻逼记者
没有一点常识概念,和楼主一样蠢。
R*****5
发帖数: 4915
8
这是哪个傻子还在说水位80米,LOL。
发信人: whoami2012 (nosce te ipsum or temet nosce), 信区: Military
标 题: Re: 长江出大问题了,要干了!
发信站: BBS 未名空间站 (Wed Jan 30 11:47:43 2019, 美东)
过去夏季防汛期每天报水位,一般最高在75-80米左右,江堤在20-30米左右,冬季长江
水位不会低于30-40米。
你去问问武汉的亲朋好友吧。
w********2
发帖数: 632
9
第一节 长江南京段航道
长江南京段航道位于长江下游中部,北岸上自驻马河,下至泗源沟,全长88公里;南岸
上自慈湖口,下至大刀河(又名大道河),全长98公里。长江南京段宽500米~3000米,
一般水深10米~30米,最深处70米。水情变化以径流控制为主,1月至2月水位最低,3
月开始回升。4月至5月间,市境河段水位上涨,形成短期春汛。7月至8月间夏汛,为水
位最高时期。10月汛期结束。12月进入枯水期。1954年8月17日,下关最高水位10.22米
。1956年1月9日,下关最低水位1.54米,水位变化平均在8米上下。
市境内的长江航道分主航道、缓流航道、短捷航道、海轮航道和专用航道5种。主航道
维护水深:燕子矶以下10.5米,燕子矶以上4.5米~5米。缓流航道和短捷航道维护水深
4.5米。海轮航道维护水深:燕子矶以下全年10.5米,燕子矶以上6米~7.5米。专用航
道的维护尺度,由长江航道部门与委托单位协商制定。各航道维护水深由长江南京航道
局按月公布。
长江南京航段分乌江、凡家矶、大胜关、南京、草鞋峡、宝塔、龙潭、仪征等水道。
【乌江水道 凡家矶水道】
乌江水道自黄洲新滩尾至下三山,全程25公里;凡家矶水道自马鞍山肉联厂水塔至大箭
山,约22公里。自马鞍山以下,被新生洲和新济洲分为两支,北支乌江水道,南支凡家
矶水道。乌江水道1994年起冲淤变化异常频繁,因其上口心滩下移渐高,同年11月30日
,改为副航道,供江轮行驶,设标17座;开放凡家矶水道为海轮航道,设标9座。1995
年10月9日,乌江水道维护水深不足4.5米,已不能满足江轮航行,改为小轮航道。同日
,开放凡家矶水道为江海轮航道。1996年12月19日,因乌江水道维护水深不能满足小轮
安全航行而封闭。
凡家矶水道1956年前是主航道,通航道弯曲,右侧多礁石,江中有丽山礁和凡家矶礁群
,中洪水期产生淤涡花水,子母洲边滩下延至下三山附近,下三山边滩及江中心滩亦增
长下延,凡家矶下口航槽遂改在新济洲尾中泓。同时,凡家矶水道上口进流条件因乌江
水道上口被泥沙封堵而逐年变好,至1999年,10米等深线全线贯通,宽度在500米左右。
【南京水道 大胜关水道】
南京水道自下三山至西方角,全程28.3公里。南京水道河槽宽窄相间呈分汊微弯型,梅
子洲将水道分为左右两汊,左汊为南京水道,右汊为大胜关水道。南京水道为主航道,
宽一般在2公里左右,水深多在15米~30米之间,最深处70米;下关、浦口间江面最狭
,宽仅1.1公里。南京水道中的长江大桥航道,自左岸桥头堡至第1号桥墩为第1孔,第1
号桥墩至第2号桥墩为第2孔,自左至右以此类推,9墩10孔。桥墩间宽度144米,有效航
宽96米。大桥净空高度为吴淞零点上32米。通过能力以大桥为界,上游可航5000吨级船
,下游可航万吨级船。对上下水船舶通航桥孔规定为:机动船下行为第8孔和第6孔,上
行为第4孔;非机动船为第9孔和第3孔。至1999年,仍执行这一规定。
大胜关水道自梅子洲头至洲尾,全长13.6公里。河道狭窄弯曲,水流平缓,是小型船舶
航道。
【草鞋峡水道 宝塔水道】
南京长江大桥下游江面展宽,江心有八卦洲,将河道分为左右两汊:左汊为宝塔水道,
自西方角至天河口,全程22公里,整个水道弯曲成月牙形,上口左岸有边滩,主流沿八
卦洲右岸,过上坝后主流过渡至左岸,该水道内现有扬子乙烯、华能电厂专用航道;右
汊草鞋峡水道为主航道,自西方角至八卦洲尾,全程11.7公里,河道较顺直,西方角左
右通航浮至草鞋峡中黑浮航宽在800米左右,草鞋峡中黑浮以下航宽在600米左右,右岸
新生圩建有海轮码头。1997年10月,南京长江第二大桥开工建设,该桥横越草鞋峡、宝
塔水道,把江南、八卦洲、江北连为一体。
【龙潭水道】
1999年,龙潭水道上起八卦洲尾天河口,承接八卦洲汊道汇流,下游至三江口,全程22
公里,整个水道呈反“S”形,两端为束窄段,最宽处约2600米,最窄处约1000米。航
道条件较好,主流紧靠南岸,自划子口以下有大片边滩,与兴隆洲和乌鱼洲相连,兴隆
洲左汊已封堵,沿边滩外侧为龙潭缓流航道。
【仪征水道 仪征捷水道】
1999年,仪征水道自三江口处的张子港过河标至世业洲尾,全程31公里。张子港至新河
口段较顺直,主流经张子港过河标后由右岸摆向左岸一侧,张子港至泗源沟航宽500米
~600米,泗源沟至新河口航宽1000米左右。世业洲分河道为南北两支:南支称仪征水
道,为主航道,主要通行大型船舶、客货轮和海轮;北支称仪征捷水道,航道狭窄,但
顺直、流缓,设标水深4.5米,为小型船舶(队)通行的捷径航道,较南支航道里程短2公
里。
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江南京段宽500米~3000米,
一般水深10米~30米,最深处70米。
相关主题
南京长江大桥比武汉长江大桥差太远了1910年的武汉有多牛
在俄罗斯,听习近平讲昨天和今天的故事中铁大桥局承建的武汉第八座长江大桥开工
以前武汉,把自己叫中国的芝加哥京沪高铁“第一桥”大胜关长江大桥通车
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【南京水道 大胜关水道】
南京水道自下三山至西方角,全程28.3公里。南京水道河槽宽窄相间呈分汊微弯型,梅
子洲将水道分为左右两汊,左汊为南京水道,右汊为大胜关水道。南京水道为主航道,
宽一般在2公里左右,水深多在15米~30米之间,最深处70米;下关、浦口间江面最狭
,宽仅1.1公里。南京水道中的长江大桥航道,自左岸桥头堡至第1号桥墩为第1孔,第1
号桥墩至第2号桥墩为第2孔,自左至右以此类推,9墩10孔。桥墩间宽度144米,有效航
宽96米。大桥净空高度为吴淞零点上32米。通过能力以大桥为界,上游可航5000吨级船
,下游可航万吨级船。对上下水船舶通航桥孔规定为:机动船下行为第8孔和第6孔,上
行为第4孔;非机动船为第9孔和第3孔。至1999年,仍执行这一规定。
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南京水道为主航道,
宽一般在2公里左右,水深多在15米~30米之间,最深处70米;
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大桥净空高度为吴淞零点上32米。通过能力以大桥为界,上游可航5000吨级船
,下游可航万吨级船。
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1954年,国务院批准了铁道部聘请苏联专家组来华支援的请求。1954年7月,苏联政府
派遣了以康斯坦丁·谢尔盖耶维奇·西林(Константин Сергееви
ч Силин)为首的专家工作组一行28人来华进行技术援助。西林是苏联著名桥梁
专家,曾于1948年至1949年间两次赴中国,协助修复东北地区铁路和松花江大桥,并参
加过成渝、天兰、兰新铁路的桥梁建设[33]。西林來到中国后,表示认为长江大桥不宜
采用气压沉箱法施工,原因是长江水深流急,沉箱需要下沉深达30米至40米,在接近四
个大气压的环境下,每名工人只能每天工作约半小时,实际作业时间仅有十几分钟,而
且只能在枯水季节的几个月内进行施工,必然大大延长施工时间、危害工人的健康,而
且需要购置大量特殊设备,加大工程投资。西林建议用管柱钻孔法,不但能在水面施工
,不受深水期的限制,而且不影响工人身体健康,但这种方法当时仍然是一种新技术,
苏联也尚未实践过[34]。
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长江水深流急,沉箱需要下沉深达30米至40米,在接近四
个大气压的环境下
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南京长江大桥是长江上第一座由我国自行设计和建造的双层式铁路、公路两用桥梁,在
中国桥梁史上具有重要意义。这座在三年困难时期开工、于“文化大革命”期间完成的
大桥,在技术上达到了世界先进水平,建筑艺术上也独树一帜,在世界桥梁建筑史上都
是个奇迹。
回顾岁月深处的故事,仿佛又走进那个万众一心、热火朝天的建设年代。那时,一群来
自天南海北的建设者,为了一个共同的目标来到这里,其中就有不少来自上海。
50年过去了,虽然其中有不少人已经离开了我们,但在他们手中建设起来的南京长江大
桥却依然年轻。
南京长江大桥架设钢梁时的情景
龚锦涵(1925— )
龚锦涵在家中接受采访
美国人的纪录,我们30年前就打破了
上海黄陂北路弯弯曲曲,一棵棵法桐一般粗细,修长而又窈窕。海军潜水医学专家龚锦
涵居住在此。今年夏天,我曾去拜访龚锦涵,90岁的龚老身体硬朗,至今还保存着1965
年1月3日大桥二处潜水班写给他的感谢信,谈起为南京长江大桥做医学保障的往事,清
晰如初。
虽然已经过去了50多年,当年在大桥参加培训的两名潜水医生始终和龚锦涵保持着联系
,每年的春节还会打来电话,互致问候,唠唠家常。“那是我生命里的一段重要经历。
”回忆起那段岁月,龚锦涵说,作为一名潜水研究人员,能为新中国的国家工程助力,
他感到十分欣慰。
南京长江大桥是我国自主设计的第一座特大型桥梁,在建设过程中遇到了数不清的困难
。党中央号召全国人民支持大桥建设,其中深潜水作业的难题,就是海军医学研究所帮
助解决的。
1963年的冬天,南京长江大桥工地派人来到位于上海的海军医学研究所,请求帮助他们
解决潜水中遇到的困难。南京长江大桥一共有9个桥墩,其中6号墩位于江心,水深32米
,水下的泥沙层也是32米,一共64米。桥墩要穿过泥沙层打到岩石里面2米,需要进行
深潜水作业,但当时60米是国际上公认的潜水员极限,超过了这个深度,不仅不能有效
地作业,还容易发生生命危险。
龚锦涵当时正巧承担的课题是吸氧水面减压法。简单来说,就是在水面建一个减压的吸
氧舱,潜水员出水以后,踩着木板搭成的栈桥来到驳船上,马上卸装进入加压舱,在暖
和的环境中呼吸医用纯氧,逐步完成减压过程。
接受任务以后,龚锦涵用了半年的时间做准备,制作了超过51.8米和60米的减压表,安
排十几个海军潜水员做了124个人次7到9个深度的试验。除此以外,他们还请大桥工地
派两名医生到所里系统地学习潜水医学知识,制定了“水面吸氧法实施细则”、“深潜
水医务保障条例”“氧气安全使用规则”等六项规章制度和确保安全的预案,为水面吸
氧减压法的实施提供了依据。
准备工作全部完成以后,1964年8月,龚锦涵带领一个工作组来到了南京大桥工地,进
驻潜水班,和潜水员生活训练在一起。他们先对潜水员进行了体检,把符合要求的人留
下来,安排循序渐进的加压锻炼和水面减压训练,调整潜水员伙食标准,建立健康档案
。到次年1月份,在大桥6号墩清底作业中,首次采用了水面吸氧减压法,一共做了17人
151人次的大深度潜水,其中60米到65米56人次,66米到67米95人次。每次凿岩、清岩
后,往往不到一天,潜水员就能完成全部探摸,其间没有一个潜水员得减压病,也没有
发生任何的医疗事故和潜水事故,保证了6号墩如期完工。
海军科研组回沪后,二处潜水班按照制定的有关条例和方案,继续实施潜水作业,勇闯
难关,有96人次达到69到71米,还进行了高难度的水下电焊和切割,没有发生一例潜水
疾病,实现了新突破。
空气潜水(60米以下和66米水面)减压法在1987年全国科学大会上获得了奖励,龚锦涵
个人也被评为全国做出重大贡献的先进工作者。1995年,美国来了一个医学军事代表团
,他们带来的减压表上标注的还是51.8米。“这个纪录,我们在30年前就打破了,达到
了世界先进水平。”说到这里,龚锦涵笑得像个孩子。
大桥二处潜水班写的感谢信
汪菊潜(1906—1975)
从台湾到上海,与两座长江大桥结缘
1957年9月,武汉长江大桥建成时,毛泽东说:“以后我们还要在长江上建设南京大桥
、宜都大桥、芜湖大桥。”第二年,中共江苏省委正式向铁道部党组、国家计委提交了
申请报告,建议将南京长江大桥列入第二个五年计划,并争取在1961年建成。至此,建
设南京长江大桥拉开序幕。
武汉长江大桥的建设为南京大桥的建设积累了经验。有一位上海人与这两座桥有着直接
关系,他就是汪菊潜,中国科学院院士、铁路桥梁工程专家。
汪菊潜是土生土长的上海人,1906年出生于上海,早年家境清寒,5岁在教会学校“自
助部”半工半读,因成绩优异被保送入中央大学,半年后考入南洋大学。因立志学土木
工程专业,于次年转到交通部唐山大学土木系,1927年1月被交通部派赴美国留学。留
美期间,汪菊潜深刻感受到外国人从内心深处看不起当时的中国人,他对此极为愤慨,
渴望祖国早日富强,决心学成为祖国效力。1930年6月,他拒绝了美国桥梁公司的高薪
聘请,毅然回国工作,年仅23岁。
新中国成立前夕,他正在台湾承做肥料公司工程。长期以来,他都对国民党政权的腐败
统治感到不满,乃至绝望,内心充满着对新中国的期待。当他在报上看到人民解放军渡
过长江的消息后,即乘飞机返回上海。
之后,汪菊潜先后担任过上海铁路局工务处长、铁道部工程总局副局长和武汉长江大桥
工程局总工程师。
1953年,为建设武汉长江大桥,中央政府决定成立铁道部武汉大桥工程局,云集了全国
铁路桥梁建设的人才,汪菊潜出任第一任总工程师。
武汉大桥建成后的1958年9月,汪菊潜调任铁道部副部长,先后任铁道部科学技术会议
副主席、铁道部科学技术委员会副主任,具体参与了南京长江大桥的建设工作,从整体
方案的提出到审定,他都积极参与。在工程施工中,从水下基础到上部结构他都仔细过
问。
同年10月,大桥工程局会同中国科学院技术科学部组织召开了三大桥技术协作会议。在
百余位专家研究的基础上,最后上报的是大桥局的总体设计方案,由大桥局长彭敏、科
学院技术科学部主任赵飞克、汪菊潜和南京工学院(现东南大学)建筑系主任杨廷宝组
成的领导小组审查确定,技术上汪菊潜起着重大作用。
当时,就引桥墩身中是否加设钢筋的问题,存在不同意见。为了结构的需要和保证质量
,汪菊潜决定加设钢筋,并向在场的工人讲清加设钢筋的道理,妥善调解了分析意见。
1963年,有全国人大代表提出对南京长江大桥基础工程的质疑议案,国务院批转铁道部
办理,铁道部委派汪菊潜主持处理。经研究讨论,汪菊潜与原提案人坦诚交换意见,获
得了理解。
1964年,汪菊潜代表铁道部对南京长江大桥各项工作包括引桥、江中基础、上部结构的
设计、施工进行审查,提出今后安排意见,协调了监理原则,为大桥顺利完成铺平了道
路。3号墩采用的是在覆盖层中深置的管柱加沉井基础,基岩破碎复杂。在管柱钻岩时
,发生了孔壁坍塌事故,长时间不能封底,基建、设计、施工三方持不同意见。汪菊潜
在现场经过实际勘察,提出抛片石笼处理的方法,最后统一了大家的意见,解决了3号
墩施工中的难题。
曹桢(1914—1998)
如果留上海,此生不可能造那么多桥
“我这一辈子,如果选择留在上海,生活条件比武汉好得多,但是我不可能造那么多桥
。尤其是南京长江大桥,我作为设计师,感觉到是最自豪的。”
说这句话的是曹桢,曾任南京长江大桥工地设计组长,晚年时他和孩子们这样解释自己
年轻时的选择。
1914年10月4日,曹桢出生在浙江省嘉兴的一个书香门第。1936年在唐山交大土木系以
第一名的成绩毕业后,分配到上海铁路局沪杭工务段。1945年7月至1946年6月公派赴美
国芝加哥西北铁路公司实习,1947—1949年在浙赣铁路任正工程师兼桥涵股长,1949年
杭州解放后任上海铁路局一等工程师,后调入武汉大桥工程局。
1959年3月11日,曹桢带领南京长江大桥设计组十几个人坐船离开武汉,顺流而下,次日
到达南京,那一年他44岁。
关于那段岁月,曹桢的儿子曹一平回忆,“我那时六七岁,在江边就能看得见工地,但
是离我们最近是火车轮渡,我经常坐在江边看轮渡过江,盼望着大桥早日修起来。”
那时候,小曹一平还不知道,修建南京长江大桥的最大技术难点是水中工程的桥墩基础
,其桥位的水深是武汉长江大桥的两倍,在当时是世界上数一数二的深水工程。时任大
桥局总工程师的梅旸春慧眼识珠,挑选了曹桢担此重任,主持水中基础方案设计和基础
施工设计。工程进入实施期,在南京工地成立了指挥机构,曹桢承担除上部钢梁设计以
外的全部设计工作和施工技术工作。
1959年11月,当桥墩基础确定位置后,大桥指挥部布置:先在南岸第10孔跨中建造一个
由4根4种类型3—3.6米管柱组成的试验墩,上筑平台,将来作为伸臂架梁的临时中间支
点。
经过5个多月的一系列试验,试验墩所有的工作项目全部圆满完成。
如今,这座大型钢筋混凝土建筑在南京长江大桥南桥头堡下的江滩上静静矗立,铭记着
大桥建设过程中的智慧与艰辛。
柴书林(1913—1995)
许世友点将,临危受命完成大桥建设
曾任大桥工程指挥部指挥的柴书林家距离上海闹市也就几百米距离,但尘嚣全无,十分
幽静。门框的上方挂着金色的“将军之家”牌匾,他的屋里有一间房全是书,像是小型
图书馆。
他的老伴李志平已经90多岁了,谈起往事,感慨中有一丝兴奋。她告诉我,柴书林是军
队中少有的知识分子,酷爱读书买书,爱到把他的名字和书连在一起。从小爷爷给他起
的名字是“树林”,后来他自己改为“书林”。他长期负责国防工程建设。从勘察到施
工,他都亲临现场,精打细算。一年12个月,他至少有9个月在外出差,经常来不及给
家里打招呼就走了。老伴下班回家,看见毛巾不在了,就知道他出差了。
南京军区司令员许世友很重视柴书林的意见,外出不离左右,戏称“洋拐杖”。柴书林
也经常临危受命,执行那些艰难棘手的任务。
“文化大革命”时期,正在修建中的南京长江大桥基本停工了,建桥指挥机构的工作受
到严重干扰,实际上已经处于瘫痪状态。
许世友决定,调柴书林担任大桥工程指挥部指挥,加快大桥建设。
柴书林临危不乱,细排工期,周密地协调了铁路桥与公路桥的施工,对参加大桥建设的
工程兵部队做了部署,并限定了完成期限。
为了确保进度,许世友还同意了柴书林的要求,由驻南京的临汾旅派出一部分兵力,从
部队抽调一些车辆、照明灯等机械设备,使施工人数增至万人。
在那段紧张会战的日子里,柴书林和部队指战员一样,吃住在工地,每天都组织工地碰
头会,进行现场讲评,针对存在问题,及时采取改进措施。他平易近人,关心战士生活
,经常到伙房查看,叮嘱炊事人员,一定要保证战士的营养,天气炎热,注意食品卫生
。在他的带领下,建桥大军夜以继日,奋力苦战,毕其功于一役,终于在国庆前夕实现
了铁路桥胜利通车。建桥队伍再接再厉,年底前完成了公路桥的建设任务。至此,南京
长江大桥全面建成通车。
李国豪(1913—2005)
用一本专著,卸下大桥设计多年块垒
南京长江大桥工程上马的时候,其中有一个细节不该被忽略。
1957年10月20日,是武汉大桥通车后的第一个星期天,市民倾城出动,密密麻麻的人群
站满了整个公路桥面。这时,人们突然感到钢梁有明显的晃动。通过观测数据表明,钢
梁发生了竖直、横向及扭转振动。在火车过桥时,晃动减衰。约15分钟后,又恢复到原
来的振幅。有记者咨询苏联专家组长西林,西林肯定地回答说:大桥的设计非常科学,
桥墩很牢固,钢梁可以使用100年。
但是,振幅仍然困扰着设计人员。在制定南京大桥的设计方案时,有专家提出为了安全
起见,建议主梁的宽度采用14米,比武汉大桥增宽4米。为此,需多用钢材约4000吨,
当时中国的钢产量只有800万吨。会议争执不下,报请铁道部审批,最终定下宽度为14
米。
当时担任南京长江大桥技术顾问委员会主任的李国豪感到,应当研究这个问题,由于各
种忙碌,一直没有沉下心来。1968年底,他在学校听到南京大桥建成通车的新闻广播,
在欣喜和感慨之余,开始潜心研究这个问题。直到1974年,他恢复了工作,才完成专著
《桁梁扭转理论—桁梁桥的扭转、稳定和振动》。
这年冬天,在武汉召开的全国钢桥振动会议上,李国豪报告了他的研究结果:武汉大桥
的晃动,是由于桥上挤满的人群的动力作用,所产生的扭转和水平弯曲偶合的振动,大
桥的刚度和稳定性都没有问题,火车、汽车在大桥上直行反而引发不了这种震动;南京
大桥的主梁宽度如果采用10米也是足够的。壁破道成,真经面世。自此,武汉大桥的震
动问题和南京大桥的稳定问题终于破解,由此消除了中国大桥设计多年的块垒心病,开
拓了桁梁结构的理论分析长河。
当时主持南京大桥钢梁设计的工程师们,也曾为此纠结了很多年。听到李国豪的研究成
果,一下子就释然了,因为以后的桥梁工程就可以节省很多的钢材。
R*****5
发帖数: 4915
17
这个二货楼主一被打脸,就开始在网上找不靠谱的垃圾文章来刷屏。
你武汉的80米水位呢?LOL。
真是可笑可怜虫
w********2
发帖数: 632
18
到次年1月份,在大桥6号墩清底作业中,首次采用了水面吸氧减压法,一共做了17人
151人次的大深度潜水,其中60米到65米56人次,66米到67米95人次。
w********2
发帖数: 632
19
南京长江大桥一共有9个桥墩,其中6号墩位于江心,水深32米,水下的泥沙层也是32米
,一共64米。
w********2
发帖数: 632
20
一桥飞架——记“万里长江第一桥”武汉长江大桥
2018年02月07日 07:17 来源:经济日报-中国经济网 经济日报·中国经济网记者
郑明桥
[推荐朋友][打印本稿]
武汉长江大桥全景。 (资料图片)
前苏联专家西林(右一)与桥梁专家唐寰澄(前排左一)等在现场进行技术交流。
(资料图片)
武汉长江大桥开始驾梁。
(资料图片)
钢梁合龙于6号墩顶。 (资料图片)
武汉长江大桥铁路桥通车盛况。 (资料图片)
武汉长江大桥通车盛况。 (资料图片)
火车通过武汉长江大桥铁路桥。
(资料图片)
雷锋同志与武汉长江大桥合影。
(资料图片)
编者按 武汉长江大桥是新中国成立后在长江“天堑”上修建的第一座公路铁路两
用桥梁,对我国的经济、文化和国防建设发挥了长期重要作用。大桥横跨在武昌蛇山和
汉阳龟山之间,总长1670米,其中正桥1156米,北岸引桥303米,南岸引桥211米。大桥
下层铁路为双向车道,上层为4车道公路,桥身为三联连续桥梁,每联3孔,共8墩9孔,
每孔跨度为128米。武汉长江大桥建成至今,“营运时间最长,运量最大,荷载最大”
,被誉为中国建桥史上永远的丰碑。
2018年1月,南亚孟加拉国帕德玛河下游,连接中国与东南亚泛亚铁路重要通道之
一——全长近9.3公里的在建公铁两用桥梁帕德玛大桥,桥墩与桥身正在同步施工。该
桥由中国中铁大桥局集团有限公司承建,中铁大桥院承担施工设计。这座桥通车后,将
结束孟加拉国西南部地区与首都达卡靠轮渡过河的历史。由此,该桥也被当地人称为“
梦想之桥”。
时间回溯到61年前的1957年。金秋十月,在浩瀚的长江上,也有一座巍峨秀丽的“
梦想之桥”——武汉长江大桥凌空飞架,铺设了一条沟通南北、跨越天堑的通途。而它
的建设者正是中铁大桥局集团有限公司的前身:铁道部大桥工程局(2001年改制为中铁
大桥局集团有限公司,以下简称大桥局)。
60多年前,建设万里长江第一桥,需举全国之力;60年后,一座座大桥跨越江河湖
海、深山峡谷,不断刷新世界之最。从武汉长江大桥到帕德玛大桥,经历“建成学会”
“发奋追赶”“超越引领”三个阶段的“中国桥”,正成为一张张亮丽的国家“新名片
”。
架桥,连贯一气之完美
西周、东汉、宋初、明末、晚清时,长江上都出现过因军事目的而搭建的浮桥,但
从未有过“既便利两岸的往来,又不阻挡水上原有交通”的真正意义上的桥梁。
万里长江横贯东西,京广铁路纵穿南北,在中国的经济版图上,两条大动脉的黄金
交汇处就是武汉。
桥梁,作为一种建筑物,它的建造牵涉到结构、测量、材料、水文、地质、机械、
施工、建筑等多个专业门类,而在长江这样的巨大河流上建造的桥梁,更非古代桥梁所
能比。西周、东汉、宋初、明末、晚清时,长江上都出现过因军事目的而搭建的浮桥,
但从未有过“既便利两岸的往来,又不阻挡水上原有交通”的真正意义上的桥梁。可以
说,能否建成长江大桥标志着国力强弱。
清朝末年,武汉三镇雏形初具:武昌为湖北省会,汉口为商埠,汉阳也发展了一定
的工业基础。1906年,京汉铁路全线通车,而粤汉铁路也在修建当中。建桥跨越长江、
汉水连接京汉、粤汉两路的构思即为各方所关注。湖广总督张之洞提出,在武汉建一座
长江大桥。
1913年,在中国铁路工程师詹天佑的支持下,国立北京大学(今北京大学)工科德
国籍教授乔治·米勒带领夏昌炽、李文骥等13名土木门(系)学生来到武汉,对长江大
桥桥址展开了初步勘测和设计实习,并由时任北京大学校长严复将建桥意向代陈于交通
部。这是武汉长江大桥的首次实际规划,当时提出建议是将汉阳龟山和武昌蛇山之间江
面最狭隘处作为大桥桥址,经武昌汉阳门、宾阳门连接粤汉铁路,并设计出公路铁路两
用桥的样式。此次规划虽然未获实行,但其选址已被证明十分适宜,与此后几次规划选
址基本相同。
1919年2月,孙中山写就了《实业计划》,阐述了开发中国实业的途径、原则和计
划,提出中国经济建设的宏伟蓝图,在其论述中也提到关于武汉修建长江大桥或隧道的
选址问题。1923年,由辛亥革命时的参谋长孙武组织,依据孙中山的规划思想,编制了
《汉口市政建筑计划书》。《计划书》明确提出,“以汉阳之大别山麓(龟山),武昌
之黄鹄山麓(蛇山)为基,架设武汉大铁桥,可收平汉、粤汉、川汉三大铁路,连贯一
气之完美”。
在这之后的1929年、1935年和1946年,当时的国民政府先后三次提出了建造武汉跨
江大桥的计划,然而由于国力贫弱,计划最终搁置。
新中国成立后,京汉铁路和粤汉铁路之间运输全部由往来于武昌和汉口的驳船和轮
渡接转。由于货物运输量剧增,同时轮渡受到天气影响较大,轮渡中转模式已满足不了
经济发展的迫切需要。1950年,时任铁道部部长的滕代远刚刚接手主持全国铁路工作不
久,就根据中央指示,着手筹划修建武汉长江大桥,并进行初步勘探调查。
1954年1月21日,周恩来主持召开政务院203次会议,听取滕代远关于筹建武汉长江
大桥的情况报告,讨论通过了《关于修建武汉长江大桥的决议》。中央任命彭敏为铁道
部大桥工程局局长,杨在田、崔文炳任副局长,时任中共武汉市委书记王任重兼大桥工
程局政委,汪菊潜为总工程师。
“我们现在说的武汉长江大桥应该称‘武汉长江大桥工程’。”据滕代远的儿子滕
久昕回忆,整个工程包括:一座横跨长江的铁路、公路两用桥,汉阳岸引桥和武昌岸引
桥,跨越汉水的长300米的铁路桥一座,长322米的公路桥一座,跨越武汉三镇市区总长
480米的跨线桥10座,一条长12.9公里的铁路联络线和一条长4.5公里的公路联络线,一
座新建的汉阳火车站。
在得到周恩来总理批准后,铁道部派出代表团携带建桥全部图纸、资料赴前苏联首
都莫斯科,请他们帮助进行最后鉴定。前苏联政府指定了25位优秀桥梁专家组成鉴定委
员会,由前苏联交通部副部长、时任桥梁工程总局局长的古拉梁夫任主席,对中方的方
案提出了53个问题,详细对比,反复研究。最后,终于通过了这次鉴定。
此后,铁道部向中央提出报告,要求聘请前苏联专家组来华支援,周恩来总理迅速
予以批准。1954年7月左右,以康士坦丁·谢尔盖维奇·西林为首的前苏联专家陆续抵
达大桥工程局并开始工作。
1955年9月1日,武汉长江大桥工程作为“一五”计划重点工程开工了。
只有成,没有败;只许成,不许败
“我有个新的想法,但是鉴定委员会里都是我的前辈,老头子是技术权威,我不好
说话。这个新办法在我国也没有用过,因为苏联没有长江。”
工程启动,正值新中国刚成立不久,虽然有前苏联专家援助,但具体施工建设、试
验和实施都是我国专家慢慢摸索出来的。
1955年7月,经过大量的试验工作后大桥正式开始施工。主桥及两端引桥由大桥局
施工,两岸的联络线及跨线桥等工程分别由汉阳工程段和中国人民解放军铁道兵施工。
大桥施工中得到了全国各地的支持,大跨度钢梁制造任务由海关桥梁工厂和沈阳桥梁工
厂承担;湖北省、武汉市数十万干部群众到工地参加义务劳动。武汉长江大桥正式开工
建设,从干部到工人,人人争作贡献,个个争当模范,在高空深水、特大洪水等恶劣环
境下顽强拼搏,第一次在万里长江上展示了中国人民大无畏的牺牲精神和英雄气概。修
建长江大桥的热情,背后是全国人民建设新中国的强烈愿望。
武汉长江大桥一共有八个桥墩,靠近武昌岸的八号墩由大桥局海外分公司原副总经
理周一桥的父亲周璞(武汉长江大桥设计小组成员)负责设计。桥墩是桥梁的基础,周
一桥告诉记者,民国时期国内外桥梁专家对长江大桥先后开展4次勘探、设计,均因资
金、技术问题无功而返,“桥墩建设是最大难题”。
当时,在深水中建造桥墩主要采取“气压沉箱法”:先将一个大沉箱沉入江底,充
入高压空气排出江水,供工人下到江底直接施工。1934年由茅以升主持兴建的钱塘江大
桥就是使用这种工艺。但这种工艺的安全极限是水下35米,长江武汉段汛期水深超过40
米,一年中能施工的时间仅为3个月。
“这个时候,西林提出采用最新的‘管柱钻孔法’进行施工。”周一桥介绍说。周
璞在其回忆录里这样写道,西林见到彭敏的第一次谈话出人意料。西林开门见山地说:
“在莫斯科开的鉴定会我是参加了的,设计文件我也研究过,我认为建造大桥基础不宜
采用‘气压沉箱法’施工。我有个新的想法,但是鉴定委员会里都是我的前辈,老头子
是技术权威,我不好说话。这个新办法在我国也没有用过,因为苏联没有长江。现在,
希望得到你的支持。我们暂时先不说出去,只和你一个人谈谈。”随后,西林用几天时
间详细给彭敏讲述了他的“管柱钻孔法”的技术理论、施工方法及优越性。
讲得通俗一点,管柱钻孔法就是先将每一个管桩定好位,再打桩钻孔取土,“就像
把一把筷子插在岩面上”。
彭敏听西林介绍之后,意识到此事非同小可,随即组织了有双方工程技术人员参加
的会议。中方人员提出了许多问题和疑点,但是抱有极大兴趣。与西林同来的几位前苏
联桥梁专家却提出相反意见,理由是:施工方案已经苏联国家鉴定委员会通过,没有必
要大改动;其次,这种新方法谁也没干过,试验来不及。这位专家还讲了一个笑话:“
一个人用右手摸自己的右耳朵,只要一抬手就摸到了;但是现在,你们却要把手绕到脖
子后面再去摸,还能摸到吗?”西林站起来严肃地说:“同志们,我们讨论的是桥梁基
础的施工方法,不是摸耳朵!”
大桥局立即组织人员在岸上和江心进行了多种试验,提出有些建筑桥墩基础的大型
机械设备也要重新设计制造,钻头、钻机、震动打桩机都需制造和改进。在试验最困难
的时候,大桥局党委曾向铁道部党组写了一份报告,其中有一句写道:“试验工作是成
败的关键。”而几天后收到铁道部党组的批复却是:“只有成,没有败;只许成,不许
败!”1955年上半年,国务院就新方案作出批示:“继续进行试验,并将新旧方案进行
比较。”
但风波到此并没有停息。国内发生的事情还是传到了国外,前苏联政府也知道了。
为了调查事情的原因,1955年底,前苏联政府派出以运输工程部部长哥热夫尼柯夫为首
的代表团来华,主要是参观长江大桥的施工,随团还来了桥梁专家葛洛葛洛夫、金果连
柯、沙格洛夫等一大批工程界权威。西林知道后,内心也很紧张,强作笑脸对老朋友彭
敏说:“我就准备接受审判吧。”
苏联代表团10多天的“参观”,实际上是审查西林提出的方案。他们审看文件、查
阅资料,同时看现场施工,听取西林的“答辩”。这期间,彭敏惴惴不安,找到滕代远
说:“假如结果是不同意这个方案,把西林撤回国去怎么办?”滕代远坚定地说:“还
按西林的方案干!”“假如……”滕代远说:“没有那么多假如!”
不久,滕代远在北京铁道部接见了西林,告知两国政府已批准建桥技术文件,现在
可以放开手脚大干了。
为了掌握这种在当时非常先进的技术,两国工程人员在长江北岸龟山、凤凰山山麓
及江心连夜苦战,进行了一系列艰苦的试验,建起了35个试验管柱,最终试验成功,并
立即应用在长江大桥的建设上。由于这种方法比之前的气压沉箱法更容易操作,使得大
桥的工程效率大大提高,为大桥的提前建成起到了重要的作用。大桥原计划4年零1个月
完工,实际仅用2年零1个月。
“桥坚强”,质保最少一百年
“武汉长江大桥设计一流、施工一流,养护也是一流的,大桥的寿命至少要延长
100年。”
武汉长江大桥工程全国关心,举世瞩目。滕代远在回忆录里写道:“我认为武汉长
江大桥又经济,又坚固,又美观,又迅速,又安全。这个桥的质量至少保证一百年。”
在前苏联专家的建议下,武汉长江大桥的钢梁由原定的9孔简支梁改为使用三联三
孔连续梁。为了适应长江风大、浪急、水深、流速等特点,同时也为了不影响武汉港船
舶繁忙的运营作业和长江航运的正常通航,正桥钢梁架设采用了架梁技术难度较高的悬
臂架梁方案。
钢梁从桥梁工厂运到工地,每根杆件就有20多吨重,建设者们需要将杆件一根又一
根地悬空拼装起来,完成主桥钢梁架设。
架梁不易,铆合更难。1956年10月,两岸架设桥梁的工作开始了,两条钢铁巨龙向
江心日日接近,新的桥墩从水中一个个站立起来,迎接着钢梁的到来。当汉阳的钢梁向
江心伸出第一孔时,有人报告:铆合质量发现问题!
这样大的钢梁,在工地进行铆合是个复杂的技术工作,每孔钢梁跨度为128米,最
厚的部分达到170厘米,而使用的铆钉直径是26厘米,现场将铆钉烧热后,甩递到作业
平台,趁热用跳动风顶联合铆钉枪铆接。要确保质量,就必须使铆钉与孔眼填充密实,
这样才能使铆钉永不松动。
曾担任武汉长江大桥施工组织设计小组组长的赵煜澄回忆,大桥钢梁拼装两个月后
,发现固定桥梁杆件的上万颗铆钉与孔眼间有2毫米缝隙,出现松动。“拼装马上停工
,直到新铆钉填满缝隙,先期铆钉全部弃用”。
前苏联专家也从国内休假返回,反映他们也遇到了同样的问题,正在研究改进。我
们从未遇到铆合这么厚的钢梁,这样长、这般粗的铆钉。但在铆工及技术人员、前苏联
专家的共同钻研下,获得了一套完整的铆合长铆钉和提高钉孔密实度的经验。同时,将
不合格的铆钉全部铲下来,重新铆合,不仅铆钉全部填满钉孔,而且高出相关国标5%,
终于解决了这个难题。铆合工作停工1个月之后,又重新启动了。
相比摩天大楼、大型机场等建筑主要承受自身重量荷载,架在峡谷、江河、大海上
的大型桥梁,不仅要承受自身重量,还得经受大量汽车甚至高速列车通过带来的巨大冲击。
中铁大桥勘测设计院院长张敏说,桥墩要防洪水、抗地震、防船撞,桥身还需面对来
自各个方向的压、弯、扭、拉等形式受力,“夸张点说,就像揉面、拉面过程中的面条,
一不小心就断裂”。
据统计,自1957年10月15日建成通车以来,武汉长江大桥虽历经7次较大洪水、77
次轮船撞击,但至今仍十分健康。
1993年5月28日,曾担任武汉长江大桥前苏联专家组组长的西林再次受邀登上大桥
。参观后,他对随行人员说:“武汉长江大桥设计一流、施工一流,养护也是一流的,
大桥的寿命至少要延长100年。”
“桥坚强”的美誉,不仅源自过硬的质量,也离不开对桥梁的精心养护。60多年来
,不论严寒酷暑、刮风下雨,武汉铁路局武汉桥工段三代“守桥人”始终虔心呵护、默
默奉献,养护维修水平一直位居全国前列。如今,武汉长江大桥的维护经验已成为全球
桥梁维护的样板。
桥长近1.4公里,来回一趟2.8公里,“80后”养桥工人陈卿明记不清每天要走多少
个来回。作为一名年轻的工长,“桥三代”陈卿明爱动脑筋、善于思考,是同事们心中
的“麻烦粉碎机”。大桥上的更换钩螺栓作业最棘手,陈卿明根据钩螺栓的形状,研制
出一种焊头卡,以前两个人干的活,现在一个人就能轻松搞定;通过大桥的列车密度、
速度增加后,木枕使用周期越来越短,陈卿明带领同事研制出了一种塑胶垫圈,安装在
护轨下方,延长了木枕的使用周期。
在武汉长江大桥工作了30年的“桥二代”聂亚林对养桥工艺、技术的变化感受颇深
。他说:“这些年,大桥养护经历了传统手工时代到机械化、再到信息化智能化时代的
跨越。”
武汉铁路局武汉桥工段发布的“体检报告”显示:目前全桥无变位下沉,桥墩可承
受6万吨压力,可抵御10万立方米流量、5米流速的洪水,可抗8级以下地震和强力冲撞
,24805吨钢梁、8个桥墩无一裂纹,无弯曲变形,百万颗铆钉没发现松动,全桥无重大
病害。
在长江上修二三十个桥
毛泽东问:“有外国专家在这里可以修这样的桥,如果没有可以修了吗?”杨在田
回答:“可以修了。”“真的可以修了吗?”他又问了一句。“确实可以修了!”
毛泽东对武汉这片白云黄鹤之地特别喜爱,新中国成立后他曾37次到武汉,居住最
长的一次达168天;曾多次畅游长江,游程总计达100多公里。毛泽东畅游长江,与武汉
长江大桥建设有着密切联系。没有哪一座建筑像武汉长江大桥这样引起过毛泽东如此多
的关注。
1956年5月底,毛泽东从长沙来到武汉。毛泽东决定乘船视察武汉长江大桥工地并
听取关于大桥建设的汇报。陪同毛泽东视察的有杨尚昆、罗瑞卿、王任重、张体学、李
尔重、陈再道等,汇报的是大桥工程局局长彭敏。
毛泽东问得很详细,不仅问了工程的进展、遇到的困难、人才的培养、施工的管理
,还询问一些桥梁科技的专门知识,如什么叫压气沉箱法、沉箱病是什么病、什么是拆
装式结构、如何进行流水作业等。毛泽东对交给他的汇报材料也看得非常认真,连材料
上多印了一个“4”字,也指了出来。
边听边看,毛泽东对大桥建设十分满意。他说:“中央提出十二年赶上世界先进科
技水平,不一定都得十二年,长江大桥这是三四年,就是世界水平了。”他还对彭敏说
:“将来长江上修上二十个、三十个桥,黄河上修上几十个,到处能走。”
也许是建桥职工这种排除一切困难、创造人间奇迹的精神让他深受感动,他提出,
我要游泳。当然,是在长江里。毛泽东首次畅游长江时多次穿过水流湍急的桥墩区域。
游泳过后,他兴致未尽,挥毫写下了脍炙人口的名篇《水调歌头·游泳》。
这是一首即兴之作,反映出毛泽东当时舒畅乐观的心情,毛泽东对此词也十分满意
。当年的12月4日、5日,他在分别给黄炎培、周世钊的复信中,将此词录赠给他们,以
答其“历次赠诗的雅意”。当时信中的题目均为《水调歌头·长江》,给黄的词抄错了
一个字:将“逝者如斯夫”写成了“逝者如斯乎”。事后毛泽东又于12月16日,再次致
信黄,特别指出了这个错字。在《诗刊》发表时,毛泽东又将题改为《水调歌头·游泳
》。词中所写“一桥飞架南北,天堑变通途”,指的正是建设中的武汉长江大桥。
1957年9月6日,毛泽东再一次来到了武汉。当时,武汉长江大桥已经建成,正在进
行桥面的装饰和场地的整治,准备复验。武汉铁路局武汉长江大桥段第一任副段长,已
经89岁高龄的范孝廉回忆,毛泽东从桥上信步而过,看见有一排栏杆上漆着不同的颜色
,便问何意。大桥局的两位领导说:“这是让武汉人民来挑选,看用什么颜色好。”他
笑着称赞“这就是走群众路线嘛”,又问曾兼任大桥局首任书记、政委的王任重:“你
是湖北的负责人,你看漆什么颜色好。”王任重答:“我还没有想好呢。”大家便问毛
主席哪一种颜色好。他笑着用手指了指蓝天、又指了指江水。大家明白了。“落霞与孤
鹜齐飞,秋水共长天一色”,桥栏应选用与天、水颜色相和谐的色彩。桥栏后来被漆为
银灰色。
夕阳西下,夜幕降临,下游的汉口华灯初上。毛泽东停下脚步,手扶栏杆眺望着,
关切地问大桥局的几位领导:“有外国专家在这里可以修这样的桥,如果没有可以修了
吗?”杨在田回答:“可以修了。”“真的可以修了吗?”他又问了一句。“确实可以
修了!”杨在田充满信心地回答。
龟山蛇山上 万杆红旗飘
一列列火车从龟山脚下开进大桥下层,轰隆作响,这标志着阻隔了几十年的京汉、
粤汉铁路实现对接。武汉九省通衢、内陆核心地位名副其实。
1957年9月25日,武汉长江大桥全部完工,并于当天下午举行正式试通车;第二天
的武汉市委机关报《长江日报》作了重头报道,在《江花》文艺副刊上转载了郭沫若不
久前发表在《人民日报》上的一首《长江大桥》长诗。
一条铁带栓上了长江的腰,在今天竟提前两年完成了。
有位诗人把它比成洞箫,我觉得比得过于纤巧。
一般人又爱把它比成长虹,我觉得也一样不见佳妙。
长虹是个半圆的弧形,旧式的拱桥倒还勉强相肖,但这,却是坦坦荡荡的一条。
长虹是彩色层层,瞬息消逝,但这,是钢骨结构,永远坚牢。
我现在又把它比成腰带,这可好吗?不,也不太好。
那吗,就让我不加修饰地说吧:
它是难可比拟的,不要枉费心机,
它就是,它就是,武汉长江大桥!
——郭沫若(1957年)
1957年10月15日,武汉长江大桥建成通车,整个武汉沸腾了。国人在这一天圆了近
半个世纪的梦想,从此“一桥飞架南北,天堑变通途”。当地报纸不吝篇幅,记录下大
桥通车的盛况:
“武汉长江大桥昨日正式通车。昨天上午五万多人在武汉长江大桥举行了隆重的落
成通车典礼。公路桥通车开始了。这时,成群成群的和平鸽,五彩缤纷的气球,飞向天
空。在乐声中,一支由三百多辆汽车组成的队伍,载着参加观礼的代表、棉花和粮食,
浩浩荡荡地开进宽阔的公路桥面。汽车后面是由12条龙灯、10个狮子和10个彩莲船组成
的文艺队伍。当载着建设长江大桥的90名先进生产者的三部解放牌汽车穿过的时候,停
立在两旁的人们都向先进生产者们投以崇敬和爱戴的眼光。许多人离开队伍,将自己的
鲜花掷到他们手中,将五颜六色的纸屑撒在他们身上。最后,参加典礼的人群跟在汽车
后面前进,他们兴奋地举起鲜花和头巾,如同碧绿的潮水一起一伏的从武昌流向汉阳。”
建成通车仪式上的热烈场景,许多人回忆起来依然历历在目。大桥局员工吕永兴老
人回忆说:“那天人山人海,桥两边插满了旗帜,文艺表演由湖北省和武汉市组织,还
有很多是群众自发组织的,有舞龙、划旱船、大秧歌,那天唱得最响的一句就是‘龟山
蛇山上,万杆红旗飘’。”
通车典礼后的第二天,武汉市民仍沉浸在欢乐之中,参观大桥的兴趣不减。但由于
大风狂吹,人群拥挤,大桥出现明显晃动。人们出于对大桥质量的关心,不断地打电话
到大桥局和《长江日报》报社编辑部,询问大桥是否出了质量问题。
为了回答群众的疑问,《长江日报》迅速派驻点采访大桥建设的记者宫强到大桥局
问个究竟。到了大桥局,宫强直接闯进了前苏联专家组组长西林的办公室。在通过翻译
贾参向西林说明来意后,西林一边微笑着让宫强坐下饮茶,一边从大桥的设计思路谈起
。他说:“长江是世界上第三条大河,在这样的大江大河上修桥,我们是慎之又慎。大
桥的设计综合考虑了多个因素,包括江面刮起8级大风,武汉地区发生地震,铁路上两
列装满货物的火车对开在桥中间紧急刹车,公路桥上的汽车也同样紧急刹车,巨轮撞在
桥墩上等。即使这几个因素同时发生,大桥仍将坚如磐石。”
西林还对宫强说:“大桥的桥墩可以长期使用,钢梁可以使用100年,如果保养得
好,还不止100年。至于大桥遇大风而摇摆,是因为钢梁有弹性,摇摆是正常的,如果
不摇摆,反而不正常了。”他怕宫强还没有理解,最后又说:“你看公路桥有三道伸缩
缝,就是准备让钢梁伸缩的。”
事实充分证明,武汉长江大桥建成通车已过一个甲子,大桥经过了各种考验。如今
,几十万个铆钉还很少发现有松动,虽有巨轮先后几次撞到桥墩,大桥仍巍然屹立。
一列列火车从龟山脚下开进大桥下层,轰隆作响,这标志着阻隔了几十年的京汉、
粤汉铁路实现对接。武汉九省通衢、内陆核心地位名副其实。
武汉长江大桥的建成,使火车由轮渡过江的一个小时缩短到现在的2分钟,在20世
纪80年代,大桥铁路每昼夜通过列车170列,公路流量为3万辆;90年代,大桥铁路钢轨
由43公斤级更换为60公斤级无缝钢轨后,日均通过列车和公路通过汽车流量均翻了一番
。进入新世纪,铁路提速,列车通过量再次增加,现在,大桥上每天的列车通过量已增
加到300列。
大桥通车后,社会经济效益十分巨大,仅通车的头5年,通过的运输量就达8000多
万吨,缩短火车运输时间约2400万车小时,节约的货运费超过了整个工程造价。随着国
民经济的不断发展,大桥的通过量也不断增加,直接间接的经济效益更难以计数,在国
民经济建设中发挥了无可替代的重大作用。
以桥为荣 以桥为福
1954年到1956年,全国支援的人力、物资源源不断地运到武汉。北京的工程技术人
员,四川的技工,河南的辅助工,来自五湖四海的人们在武汉汇聚。
很少有一座城市与桥结缘像武汉这样深厚。前几年,一个武汉人出差,在火车上聊
天,外地人问他,武汉长江大桥有几个桥墩?武汉人回答不出,外地人说,你不是正宗
的武汉人。
这座桥与武汉人有不解之缘;这座桥使武汉人有了大桥情结;这座桥使武汉兴起“
大桥文化”,而且经久不衰。
今天,“武汉—大桥”很自然地融为了一体,桥梁镌刻着一座城市的记忆。
1957年10月,武汉长江大桥通车了,汉阳建桥新村派出所时任所长王卫民却烦恼起
来,他回忆说,“在我们这里,可以经常听到这样的对话”。
“同志,我们生了个小孩,请您给俺登个记吧,取名就叫‘建桥’。”
“同志,请您换个别的名字吧,叫这个名字的太多了。”派出所的工作人员说。
“那就换成‘汉桥’好啦。”婴儿的父母恳求说。
“‘汉桥’的名字也很多了。这样同年、同月、同名字的多了,会给我们在户口管
理造成很多麻烦的。”
有的家长为了让自己的子女和“桥”字挨个边,费尽心思也让子女的名字带个“桥
”字。因此,除“建桥”“汉桥”以外,还有“金桥”“银桥”“青桥”“新桥”和“
学桥”等名字。当年大桥局党委号召全体建桥职工虚心向前苏联专家学习。特提出“建
成学会”的口号。1955年9月,一个职工家属生了对双胞胎,一个就取名“建成”,一
个则取名叫“学会”。
在短短的两年间,建桥新村所出生的婴儿中叫“建桥”的有25个,叫“汉桥”的有
l5个,叫“建成”的有9个。建桥的职工们都以用“桥”给子女命名而感到骄傲和自豪。
在众多与武汉长江大桥合影的老照片中,一张雷锋同志与桥头堡的合影引起了记者
的注意。
1958年11月初,18岁的雷锋被鞍钢录用。在从原工作地湖南长沙县团山湖农场去往
鞍钢途中,雷锋与同行者杨必华特意在武汉作了停留,参观了通车刚一周年的长江大桥
。据杨必华描述,“我们迎着初升的太阳走上武昌街头,径直朝长江大桥走去。清凉的
江风吹拂着我们的面颊,辽阔的长江,雄伟的大桥,使我们目眩神驰,赞叹不已。雷锋
站在江边仰望着大桥,眼里闪着激动的光亮,他忽然说了句‘原来全是钢铁呀!’……
雷锋指着大桥说,下层铁路桥是钢铁造的,上层公路桥也是钢铁造的,‘这需要多少钢
铁呀。’”
据雷锋的战友乔安山回忆,雷锋在他众多的照片中最爱3张,其中一张就是这张他
在武汉长江大桥前的留影,这也是雷锋在武汉唯一的留影,“雷锋当时告诉我,这就是
咱们建国以后修的大桥,底下跑火车,上头跑汽车,多漂亮”。
在汉阳小龟山脚下,有个建桥街道大桥社区,这里住着一群从天南海北来的人们,
他们的命运与大桥紧密相连。60多年前,他们为支援大桥建设扎根于此,如今他们的子
孙后代仍然在延续着他们的大桥情结。
清晨,在汉阳桥头堡,伴随着轮船尖锐的汽笛声,火车的呼啸声,大桥社区的居民
们在这里散步、健身,他们对这样的声音已经习以为常。
大桥社区82岁的老奶奶李惠洁,每天都要对着大桥练练嗓。大桥串起了她一生的时
光。60多年前,李惠洁是北京铁路局材料厂的一名木工,响应建设大桥的号召,调到武
汉,并在武汉安了家,子女们也留在了武汉。李惠洁说:“在我们的思想上,以桥为荣
,以桥为福。现在,我一开窗户就能看到大桥。”
1954年到1956年,长江大桥建设进入紧张的关键时期,全国支援的人力、物资源源
不断地运到武汉。北京的工程技术人员,山东的转业复员军人,四川的技工,河南的辅
助工,来自五湖四海、操着不同口音的人们在武汉汇聚。
六十年一甲子,昔日的建设者们,如今已经满头白发。1955年,新婚3个月的王秀
峰夫妇从天津新河基地材料厂调到武汉,那时候,汉阳很荒凉,钟家村还是一片泥塘。
他们租住了一个小房间,买来锅碗瓢盆,就开始了新生活。王秀峰的妻子郭仕珍说:“
一个提包,一个拿被褥行李,我们坐人力车,再坐划子(小船),就这样过来了。”
王秀峰会开二十多个不同种类的吊车,是一名四级工,他参加了做桥墩子、打混凝
土、架设钢梁等工程。“大桥的每个钢件每个铸件,在我心里都有数。每一根米字钢梁
,立柱16吨,4个斜杆9吨一个,下悬36吨,上悬35吨,到现在我都记得清清楚楚。”王
秀峰说。
最让王秀峰感到心潮澎湃的,还是他架设完最后一根钢梁,大桥建成的时刻。王秀
峰回忆:“那个场景可热闹了。我操作下悬吊机吊着钢梁,钢梁上扎着两个大彩球,稳
稳当当落下最后一根钢梁,当时一落下来,底下掌声热烈,锣鼓喧天。”
从青春正盛到白发苍苍,再到祖孙四代24口人生活在武汉,他们夫妇的一生给大桥
做了生动的注脚。
世界桥梁看中国 中国桥梁看武汉
近5年来,世界超过一半的大跨度桥梁出现在中国,“最长、最高、最大、最快”
等纪录,几乎被武汉建桥人“垄断”
在解决了大桥钢梁铆接松动后不久,滕代远利用到武汉检查工作之际,又召集了大
桥局干部大会,他表示:大桥建设好了,可以培养我国建桥的大批人才,训练出更多的
工人修桥队伍。
滕代远的秘书卜占稳在日记里回忆道:“震动打桩机原来是前苏联专家发明的,拿
到中国大桥局来做试验。武汉大桥局对这个机器进行改进,增加了换挡功能,下管柱遇
到土质坚硬时可以换挡。开始是200吨的力量,换二挡是250吨,换三挡就是320吨的力
量。……他们(指前苏联专家)见到后,感觉很不错,将图纸复制一份带走了。”
中铁大桥局董事长刘自明介绍,武汉长江大桥当年摸索的建桥技术,早已被更先进
、更经济的工艺所取代,“但万里长江第一桥,为我国桥梁建设者们播下了自主创新的
自信种子”。
虽然武汉长江大桥、南京长江大桥先后通车,但仍难以缩小中国桥梁与世界先进水
平的巨大差距。1982年,参与过武汉长江大桥建设的李赢沧,受邀参访日本本州四国联
络桥。施工现场上千米跨度的大桥,起重3000吨的吊船,让他内心震撼不已。“国内最
大吊船才35吨,我们什么时候能赶上日本?”
与国外同行存在的巨大差距,让国内桥梁建设者们更有动力发奋追赶。如今,中国
的桥梁建设团队已经将国际上的竞争对手远远甩到了身后。
2018年1月22日16时28分,福建平潭海峡公铁两用大桥建设工地上,中铁大桥局集
团有限公司成功吊装世界最重钢桁梁,该钢桁梁重3150吨,相当于3000多辆小汽车的重
量。
最重的钢桁梁,需要最“壮”的起吊船。此次起吊任务由“大力士”大桥海鸥号承
担,该起吊船为国内起重量最大、起升高度最高,起重重量3600吨,由中铁大桥局集团
有限公司自主研发。
从武汉长江大桥的20吨,到如今的3150吨,中国建桥军团一次次刷新着纪录。
在工艺上——从只能建造类似武汉长江大桥的钢桁梁结构,到现在世界排名前十的
斜拉桥、悬索桥、拱桥中,中国桥梁占席均超过“半壁江山”,建设工艺创新不断惊艳
世界。
在材料上——武汉长江大桥所用桥梁钢全部从国外进口,芜湖长江大桥上首次使用
国产Q370(一平方毫米能承受37公斤的拉力)桥梁钢,在建沪通长江大桥使用的国产桥梁
钢强度达到Q500。
在装备上——实现国产化的大型桩工机械、施工船舶、运架梁设备等先进建桥装备
,使大型桥梁建设从武汉长江大桥时需举全国之力,变为现在一家企业就能像“搭积木
”一样同时建造10多座大桥。
芜湖长江大桥、苏通长江大桥、贵州坝陵河大桥、杭州湾跨海大桥……一座座打通
天堑阻隔的中国桥梁,使中国高速公路、铁路纵横成网,为经济社会发展提供有力支撑。
中国桥梁究竟实力几何,还需在海外市场上与国际桥梁企业同台竞技来检验。中铁
大桥局集团有限公司海外分公司原副总经理周一桥介绍说,本世纪初,大桥局首个海外
中标的孟加拉国帕克西大桥,设计、施工材料、施工试验结果认证等都是使用美国标准
。如今,按中国标准建设的“中国桥”已遍布亚洲、非洲、欧洲等大洲。
“世界桥梁看中国,中国桥梁看武汉。”全国工程设计大师徐恭义说,近5年来,
世界超过一半的大跨度桥梁出现在中国,“最长、最高、最大、最快”等纪录,几乎被
武汉建桥人“垄断”。目前,长江上已建和在建的大桥有近百座,其中七成以上由武汉
桥企设计、施工或监理。武汉已形成从设计、施工到钢梁制造的造桥“一条龙”产业链。
数据显示,世界在建的主跨1000米以上悬索桥有13座,中国占9座;世界建成和在
建跨度600米以上的斜拉桥有21座,中国占17座;世界已建跨度420米以上拱桥有12座,
中国占9座;世界已建跨度250米以上预应力混凝土桥梁有20座,中国占12座。这些世界
级大桥中,约八成由武汉建桥企业承建或参建。
“企业快速发展得益于湖北、全国的经济发展,特别是随着‘一带一路’倡议的推
进,以武汉长江大桥为样板,我们将在桥梁建造技术上完成更多世界级‘高难动作’。
”中铁大桥局集团有限公司董事长刘自明说。
结 语
著名桥梁专家茅以升说,从一座桥的修建上,可以看出当地工商业的荣枯和工艺水
平高低。近几年中国桥梁的成长,就是国民经济快速发展、综合国力快速提升的缩影。
从一桥飞架,天堑变通途的武汉长江大桥,到勾连“一带一路”的基础设施节点工程—
—孟加拉国帕德玛大桥,代表的都是国家的经济发展和战略需要。安得五彩虹,驾天作
长桥。从武汉长江大桥开始,中国桥梁建设者们凭借扎扎实实的奋斗、自力更生的精神
、勇担重任的勇气,让“中国桥”不断迈向新的征程,实现新的跨越。一座座大桥,或
飞跃惊涛骇浪,或穿越悬崖陡壁,在世界桥梁史上书写着新的“中国篇章”。(经济日
报-中国经济网记者 郑明桥)
相关主题
老毛还是湖南人的血性南京长江大桥威武
中国的水路客运为什么那么弱?2020年实现长江航运现代化
武汉长江大桥迎55岁生日 被撞70余次仍然无恙南京长江大桥的5000吨轮船限制
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当时,在深水中建造桥墩主要采取“气压沉箱法”:先将一个大沉箱沉入江底,充入高
压空气排出江水,供工人下到江底直接施工。1934年由茅以升主持兴建的钱塘江大桥就
是使用这种工艺。但这种工艺的安全极限是水下35米,长江武汉段汛期水深超过40米,
一年中能施工的时间仅为3个月。
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楼主,你那个引用的是少了几个小数点。13年前的一个出错文章。
10.5(不是105)现在已经进成12.5了
南京至长江出海口12.5米深水航道全线贯通
2018-05-08 17:06:04 来源: 新华网
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新华社南京5月8日电(记者赵文君、王子铭)长江南京以下12.5米深水航道二期工
程8日试运行,对国内外船舶开放航行。这意味着5万吨级集装箱船可以满载从江苏沿江
港口直航到我国沿海地区和周边国家,长江黄金水道含金量进一步提升。
长江南京以下12.5米深水航道建设工程是“十二五”和“十三五”期间全国内河水
运投资规模最大、技术最复杂的工程,是长江黄金水道建设与发展的重要里程碑。工程
历经7年建设,总投资110亿元,分两期实施。二期工程试运行后,南京至长江出海口
431公里的12.5米深水航道实现了全线贯通。
长江南京以下是我国内河水运最繁忙的区域,年运量超过16亿吨,其中海轮承运量
超过8亿吨。以前,长江南京以下航道受10.5米水深限制,5万吨级以上的海轮无法满载
驶入,只能通过减载、换小船运输货物。12.5米深水航道开通后,提升了大型海轮的实
载率,5万-7万吨级船型货物实载率提升近25%,水运运输费用大幅降低,可以实现更高
效的江海联运、江海直达运输。据测算,5万吨级以上的进江海轮每多装载1万吨货物,
约节约运输成本23.3万元。
深水航道指挥部指挥长任建华介绍,这一工程充分落实长江生态环境保护要求,在
实现整治效果的同时,生态环境也显著改善。工程在设计中创新性地采用适合水生生物
生长和栖息的生态护底、护岸及坝体的结构形式,在长江水域试验性地建设10万平方米
人工鱼巢和100亩生态浮岛,投入8400多万元实施增殖放流等生态补偿措施。
交通运输部总工程师姜明宝说,这一工程为推动长江经济带高质量发展,构建高效
畅通的水上高速公路,深化水运供给侧结构性改革发挥重要作用。
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上海南浦大桥50米,上海杨浦大桥50米;
苏通大桥62米,江阴大桥50米,润扬大桥50米
南京长江大桥净高24米 (铁路、公路两用桥) ,南京长江二桥24米,南京长江三桥24米
,大胜关长江大桥32米;
安徽芜湖长江大桥净高24米 安庆长江大桥净高24米 铜陵长江大桥净高24米
湖北省(12座) 武汉长江大桥净高18米 荆州长江大桥净高18米 鄂黄长江大桥净高
24米 (铁路、公路两用桥) 武汉军山长江大桥净高18米 武汉白沙洲长江大桥净高
18米 武汉长江二桥净高24米 葛洲坝长江大桥净高18米 黄石市黄石长江大桥净高24
米 巴东长江大桥净高24米 宜昌夷陵长江大桥净高18米 宜昌长江大桥净高18米
西陵长江大桥净高18米
重庆市(12座) 奉节长江大桥净高18米 大佛寺长江大桥净高18米 李家沱长江大
桥净高20米 马桑溪长江大桥净高18米 江津地维长江大桥净高18米 涪陵长江大
桥净高24米 鹅公岩长江大桥净高20米 万州长江二桥净高24米 忠县长江大桥净高18
米 丰都长江大桥净高18米 巫山长江大桥净高18米 万县长江二桥净高24米
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长江大桥净空24米,是为了防止帝国主义军舰进入长江。
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楼主扯淡,老将智商堪忧,连平均深度和最大深度都不懂。作为半个武汉人有必要说几
句,长江武汉段左岸浅,右岸深。楼主一楼引用的40米数据,那是某个位置的水深,测
量是为了修桥,总要桥墩在哪里就要测哪里,如果桥墩凑巧在最深处难道按照平均数设
计?
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武汉长江大桥
2015-09-07  中国桥梁网 分享到:
内容摘要:武汉长江大桥位于湖北省武汉市,西北始于汉阳龟山南坡,东南止于武
昌蛇山入江的山头。由于龟蛇锁江,江面狭窄,大桥全长1670m,其中正桥长1156m,两
端引桥长514m。正桥8墩9孔,每孔桥跨128m,是公铁两用双层连续钢桁梁桥,上层为公
路,下层为双线铁路桥。
1.概况
武汉长江大桥位于湖北省武汉市,西北始于汉阳龟山南坡,东南止于武昌蛇山入
江的山头。由于龟蛇锁江,江面狭窄,大桥全长1670m,其中正桥长1156m,两端引桥长
514m。正桥8墩9孔,每孔桥跨128m,是公铁两用双层连续钢桁梁桥,上层为公路,下层
为双线铁路桥。江底为两山余脉,除7号墩地质条件较差外,正桥的7个桥墩都立在坚固
岩石上。大桥是新中国成立后在“天堑”长江上修建的第一座大桥,使人们数千年盼望
长江“天堑变通途” 的梦想成为现实,也使长期分割的武汉三镇连为一体,从此打通
了被长江隔断的京广线,促进了南北经济的发展,是新中国桥梁建设史上第一座里程碑
式的桥梁(图1)。
图1 武汉长江大桥全景
桥位处于长江两岸之间,江面最窄。最大水位涨落高差约19m,设计流速0.4~3.
0m/s,设计流量76000m3/s,最大冲刷深度达22m。覆盖层在3、4号墩墩位处最厚,达25
~27m。以下岩石为石灰岩、泥灰岩和页岩,极限强度最高达170MPa(石灰岩),最低
为20MPa(泥灰岩)。
武汉为典型季节性气候,历史最高气温43℃、最低气温14.2℃,多年平均气温15.
4℃;台风影响集中在5~11月,江面最大风力达7~9级; 春季风和日丽,6月前后为梅
雨季节;夏季天气炎热,雨水充沛集中,年最大降雨量达1266mm;秋季秋高气爽,昼夜
温差较大;冬季天气晴朗,寒冷干燥。
大桥采用公铁两用连续钢桁梁桥;上层为六车道公路,宽度22.5m;下层为双线铁
路,宽度14.5m;铁路活载为中—24级;船舶撞击力:顺桥向2、3号墩采用300t,1号墩
采用150t,横水流方向取上述值的50%;桥址处于6级地震区;通航净高18m。
2.主桥结构
大桥全长1670m,其中正桥长1156m,桥跨结构采用3孔一联等跨的平弦菱形连续钢
桁梁,共3联,每孔计算跨度为128m。江中1~8号墩除7号墩为钢筋混凝土管桩基础外,
其余均为管柱基础。墩身高33m,下部宽7.4m、长13.8m,从管注钻岩基底算起至墩帽的
高度,最高达64m。公路面和两侧人行道均为钢筋混凝土板,行车道板厚13cm,上铺以
1cm防水层、4cm加钢丝网的混凝土保护层和总厚度为4cm的沥青混凝土、沥青沙摩擦层。
(1) 主桥钢梁
本桥为公铁两用桥,公路在上层,铁路在下层(图2)。铁路为双线,线间距离为
4.1m,铁路桥面在钢梁两侧亦设有同样宽度的人行道。主桁为平行弦杆的菱形桁架,桁
高16m,桁距10m。每孔分为8个16m的大节间,由补充的竖杆将大节间再分为2个8m的小
节间。
图2 钢梁横断面
由于主桁长细比较小,应力折减不多,
因而采用H型截面,既能充分发挥材料强度,又能大大简化制造工作。主桁主要节
点的铆合是与钢梁安装同时进行的,为使钢梁在伸臂安装时维持良好的上拱度,各主要
节点均随装随铆,并且规定铆合工作不得落后于三个8m长的小节间。
在架设过程中,当伸臂为112m时,部分弦杆的安装应力,已超出运营时的应力。
为了解决这一问题,在设计中采用了增设墩旁支架的方案(图3),限制最大伸臂为
112m。
图3 墩支架施工
(2)主桥基础
在初步设计中,正桥基础采用气压沉箱法,但由于气压沉箱法在施工中面临着巨
大困难,因而采用了管柱结构的新设想进行基础施工。而管柱结构新技术需要解决以下
难题:管柱如何通过20m沙层并达到岩层;在岩面不平的情况下,如何防止翻砂;如何
钻岩成孔,如何保证管柱内水下填充混凝土的质量达到与岩石固结密贴等。
桥墩基础采用管柱基础方案的有1~6号墩及8号墩。1号墩基础为长方形,用管柱
24根。其余六个桥墩的基础均为圆形,直径16.76m,每墩各有管柱30或35根,管柱内钻
入岩层深2~7m,3、4号墩管柱长42m,重50t,通过覆盖层23m。钢筋混凝土管柱全部在
工地分节制造,每节长度一般为9m或12m,每根管柱最下端设有带加劲肋高1.2~1.5m的
钢管靴(图4、图5、图6)。全桥共用管柱224根,总延长6000m。
图4 围令浮运就位
图5 利用管柱进一步下降围令
图6 带钢管靴的管节
7号墩由于基底为破碎的碳质页岩,桥墩范围内岩面高差达6m,河床没有覆盖层,
因而在技术设计中采用了直径55cm的钢筋混凝土管桩方案。7号墩基桩共计116根,每根
桩容许承载能力为172t,在全部基桩中有80根管桩的入岩深度达到15~17m。
(3)施工组织及施工控制
正桥钢梁为三联各为3孔等跨的平弦连续菱形桁架,每孔计算跨径为128m。由于桥
址处水深湍急,风力可达9级,右岸江底岩层上几无覆盖层,一年中水位变化达15到18m
,下弦杆中心标高离低水位约35m,而且航运繁忙,用满布式赝架法或浮运法架设钢梁
,都是不适宜和不经济的。因此,利用连续梁结构的特性,钢梁的架设采用悬臂法。对
支点附近弦杆的加固,是采用增加弦杆永久截面的办法予以解决的。考虑工厂制造钢梁
的能力以及桥梁竣工通车的日期,选取架梁方案从两岸分头进行。为了避免在连续梁中
部合龙所造成技术上的困难和复杂性,确定从左岸向江心架设两联,从右岸向江心架设
一联,而且左岸架梁工作应先于右岸4至6个月开始,使两岸架梁工作约可同时达到江心
6号墩。
3 主要技术特点和创新点
(1)武汉长江大桥江心桥墩基础采用了新型的管柱结构基础,避免了气压沉箱法
所将遭遇到的几乎难以克服的困难,使全部工程均可在水面上进行,相对的不受水位限
制,大大缩短工期,改善劳动条件,并节约资金。7号墩位于破碎灰质页岩上,不适合
管柱结构基础,因而合理的采用了管桩基础。“管柱钻孔法”在大桥首创并成功运用后
,实事证明管柱钻孔法是先进的,是改善劳动条件、缩短工期降低造价的关键,它从根
本上消除了沉箱方案中不可能解决的困难使深水基础的结构和施工方法得到了前所未有
的新发展。
2)大桥钢梁采用了平行弦杆、菱形桁架、三孔等跨连续梁,主桁杆件一律采用工
字形断面,反挠度用三种不同的节点板来控制。这样减少了工厂制造及现场安装工作,
运营维修亦称便利。在设计时,采用了调整应力的计算方法,使受正负力矩的杆件应力
接近,节约了钢材,并简化了节点细节。由于采用菱形桁架,在同一板厚情况下,桁架
高度可以减小为16m,施工方便,经济美观。钢梁制造所达到的高度精确性以及伸臂安
装法的运用,都达到了世界先进的技术水平。
3)在施工方面,施工组织完善。设计、制造并运用了许多新型机具,逐步充实并
改进了新技术的施工操作方法,提高了我国桥梁工程施工水平,培养出一批桥梁建设力
量。
4 有关资料
桥 名:武汉长江大桥
桥 型:钢桁架连续梁
跨 径:每孔128米
桥 址:湖北省武汉市
设计单位:中铁大桥勘测设计院有限公司
施工单位:中铁大桥局集团
混凝土用量:91500m3
钢材用量:21420t
造价:7189万元。
建成日期: 1957年10月15日
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桥位处于长江两岸之间,江面最窄。最大水位涨落高差约19m,设计流速0.4~3.
0m/s,设计流量76000m3/s,最大冲刷深度达22m。覆盖层在3、4号墩墩位处最厚,达25
~27m。以下岩石为石灰岩、泥灰岩和页岩,极限强度最高达170MPa(石灰岩),最低
为20MPa(泥灰岩)。
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“最大水位涨落高差约19m”
冬天和夏天差20米,和我老过去感觉差不多。冬天汉口上轮渡下行浮桥到浮动船墩很长
,武昌更长。夏天浮桥很短。
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墩身高33m,下部宽7.4m、长13.8m,从管注钻岩基底算起至墩帽的
高度,最高达64m。
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武汉长江大桥设计小组成员周璞逝世 全组6人仅1人在世
2017年12月17日 11:52:25 来源:长江网
曾是武汉长江大桥设计小组成员的周璞,带着对大桥的眷恋走了。11月29日,这位
中铁大桥局的高级技术顾问在武汉逝世,享年92岁。
今年10月在武汉长江大桥通车60年纪念日前夕,长江日报记者曾见到一张珍贵的老
照片,照片中6名风华正茂的青年是武汉长江大桥设计小组成员。如今,6人中又少了一
位,仅剩一位在世。
泛黄的设计小组“同学合影”
泛黄的设计小组“同学合影”又少一位 如今6人仅剩1人
今年10月11日,62岁的中铁大桥局海外分公司原副总经理周一桥来到武汉长江大桥
,在通车60年的日子代他92岁的老父亲来看他的“儿子”。周一桥的父亲正是周璞,他
把大桥当“儿子”。
周璞是武汉长江大桥主要设计人员之一,承担基础工程设计。周一桥说,这些年,
他经常陪老父在江边或大桥上散步,父亲曾指着8号桥墩对他说:“那是我设计的。”
1948年,周璞从上海交通大学土木系结构专业毕业,1950年,国家筹备修建长江大
桥,在北京成立了大桥设计事务所。“当时父亲正想干一番事业,就报了名,与同班的
5名同学一同来到武汉,参与大桥初步设计。”
在周一桥保存的一张略微泛黄的六七十年前“同学合影”中,6名西装革履的帅气
小伙整齐站成两排,除周璞外,唐寰澄是全桥建筑美术设计,他设计的桥头堡美术方案
,被周恩来总理批准为首选;李家咸曾先后参加和担任大桥钢梁初步设计及施工设计、
大桥正桥部分桥墩基础施工设计组组长;赵煜澄曾担任长江大桥施工组织设计小组组长;
华有恒参加了武汉大桥钢梁方案设计及江汉桥混合梁钢桥设计;丁饶也是大桥初步设计
参与者之一。如今,6人之中仅剩下赵煜澄。
“管柱钻孔法”试验施工设计在他手中成真
武汉长江大桥的主要难题在于基础施工。大桥基础最初的施工方案是气压沉箱法。
然而,武汉长江大桥多个墩位岩面在施工水位35米以下,气压沉箱的施工水深接近40米
,在水下高压舱室内工作,人体器官的承受力达到极限,每人每天最多只能工作20分钟。
1950年,周璞在北京画武汉长江大桥方案素描图。
在前苏联专家西林的大胆提议下,经过试验,武汉长江大桥的建设决定采取管柱钻
孔法,其试验设计正是由周璞所在的设计小组承担。在前苏联专家和中国工程师共同努
力下,经过艰苦的试验论证,“管柱钻孔法”被证实可行,此法不受水位限制,保障了
工人的健康安全,还能加快施工进度。周璞还承担了水中8个主墩管柱基础的施工设计。
周一桥回忆,武汉长江大桥通车盛况,周璞却因出差遗憾错过。还是周璞的父亲给
他寄去明信片,告诉他大桥通车典礼的盛况。
60多年间,周璞参与了武汉长江大桥、南京长江大桥、武汉长江二桥、武汉天兴洲
长江大桥、汕头海湾大桥、西陵长江大桥、杭州湾大桥、孟加拉帕克西大桥等国内外诸
多重大桥梁的建设。
自学4国语言 75岁赴孟加拉技术谈判 82岁“正式退休”
周一桥说,父亲为了能直接从国外的技术资料中汲取精华,原本就掌握英文的他还
自学了俄、法、德、日等4国语言。
1990年退休后,周璞受聘为大桥局高级技术顾问,作为教授级高级工程师,继续发
光发热。据周一桥回忆,在孟加拉帕克西大桥建设期间,75岁的周璞作为大桥局顾问远
赴孟加拉,与孟方的监理进行技术谈判。后来,孟方监理经常会在施工现场提到:那位
75岁的中国桥梁设计工程师,真了不起!
在武汉长江二桥建设期间,周璞与他曾经的同学华有恒,两位当时已是69岁的老人
,主动请缨承担世界上罕见的8米节段牵索挂篮的设计工作。
在东海及杭州湾大桥施工中,他大胆提出采用整孔预制,以运架一体化架梁专用浮
吊进行海上作业的方案,被大桥局采用,“小天鹅号”、“天一号”架桥重器因此筹建。
因为牵挂着祖国的桥梁事业,周璞82岁才“正式退休”。“大桥的年青同志,请你
们多多为国家做贡献。”今年4月,周璞为国家建桥新生代留下这句勉励。
(原标题为《 长江大桥设计师“6人组”系同班同学 现仅一人在世》。)
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武汉长江大桥多个墩位岩面在施工水位35米以下,气压沉箱的施工水深接近40米
,在水下高压舱室内工作,人体器官的承受力达到极限,每人每天最多只能工作20分钟
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一桥飞架——记“万里长江第一桥”武汉长江大桥
来源:经济日报 作者:郑明桥 时间:2018-02-09
161 0 中国道路 字号:A-A+ 分享到: 收藏 打印
编者按
武汉长江大桥是新中国成立后在长江“天堑”上修建的第一座公路铁路两用桥梁,对我
国的经济、文化和国防建设发挥了长期重要作用。大桥横跨在武昌蛇山和汉阳龟山之间
,总长1670米,其中正桥1156米,北岸引桥303米,南岸引桥211米。大桥下层铁路为双
向车道,上层为4车道公路,桥身为三联连续桥梁,每联3孔,共8墩9孔,每孔跨度为
128米。武汉长江大桥建成至今,“营运时间最长,运量最大,荷载最大”,被誉为中
国建桥史上永远的丰碑。
u=2395331783,4225049895&fm=173&s=BDBE5F901289494D7221ADD10300D0BB&w=500&h=
253&img.jpg
↑武汉长江大桥全景。 (资料图片)
2018年1月,南亚孟加拉国帕德玛河下游,连接中国与东南亚泛亚铁路重要通道之一—
—全长近9.3公里的在建公铁两用桥梁帕德玛大桥,桥墩与桥身正在同步施工。该桥由
中国中铁大桥局集团有限公司承建,中铁大桥院承担施工设计。这座桥通车后,将结束
孟加拉国西南部地区与首都达卡靠轮渡过河的历史。由此,该桥也被当地人称为“梦想
之桥”。
时间回溯到61年前的1957年。金秋十月,在浩瀚的长江上,也有一座巍峨秀丽的“梦想
之桥”——武汉长江大桥凌空飞架,铺设了一条沟通南北、跨越天堑的通途。而它的建
设者正是中铁大桥局集团有限公司的前身:铁道部大桥工程局(2001年改制为中铁大桥
局集团有限公司,以下简称大桥局)。
60多年前,建设万里长江第一桥,需举全国之力;60年后,一座座大桥跨越江河湖海、
深山峡谷,不断刷新世界之最。从武汉长江大桥到帕德玛大桥,经历“建成学会”“发
奋追赶”“超越引领”三个阶段的“中国桥”,正成为一张张亮丽的国家“新名片”。
架桥,连贯一气之完美
西周、东汉、宋初、明末、晚清时,长江上都出现过因军事目的而搭建的浮桥,但从未
有过“既便利两岸的往来,又不阻挡水上原有交通”的真正意义上的桥梁。
万里长江横贯东西,京广铁路纵穿南北,在中国的经济版图上,两条大动脉的黄金交汇
处就是武汉。
桥梁,作为一种建筑物,它的建造牵涉到结构、测量、材料、水文、地质、机械、施工
、建筑等多个专业门类,而在长江这样的巨大河流上建造的桥梁,更非古代桥梁所能比
。西周、东汉、宋初、明末、晚清时,长江上都出现过因军事目的而搭建的浮桥,但从
未有过“既便利两岸的往来,又不阻挡水上原有交通”的真正意义上的桥梁。可以说,
能否建成长江大桥标志着国力强弱。
清朝末年,武汉三镇雏形初具:武昌为湖北省会,汉口为商埠,汉阳也发展了一定的工
业基础。1906年,京汉铁路全线通车,而粤汉铁路也在修建当中。建桥跨越长江、汉水
连接京汉、粤汉两路的构思即为各方所关注。湖广总督张之洞提出,在武汉建一座长江
大桥。
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429&img.jpg
↑武汉长江大桥通车盛况
1913年,在中国铁路工程师詹天佑的支持下,国立北京大学(今北京大学)工科德国籍
教授乔治·米勒带领夏昌炽、李文骥等13名土木门(系)学生来到武汉,对长江大桥桥
址展开了初步勘测和设计实习,并由时任北京大学校长严复将建桥意向代陈于交通部。
这是武汉长江大桥的首次实际规划,当时提出建议是将汉阳龟山和武昌蛇山之间江面最
狭隘处作为大桥桥址,经武昌汉阳门、宾阳门连接粤汉铁路,并设计出公路铁路两用桥
的样式。此次规划虽然未获实行,但其选址已被证明十分适宜,与此后几次规划选址基
本相同。
1919年2月,孙中山写就了《实业计划》,阐述了开发中国实业的途径、原则和计划,
提出中国经济建设的宏伟蓝图,在其论述中也提到关于武汉修建长江大桥或隧道的选址
问题。1923年,由辛亥革命时的参谋长孙武组织,依据孙中山的规划思想,编制了《汉
口市政建筑计划书》。《计划书》明确提出,“以汉阳之大别山麓(龟山),武昌之黄
鹄山麓(蛇山)为基,架设武汉大铁桥,可收平汉、粤汉、川汉三大铁路,连贯一气之
完美”。
在这之后的1929年、1935年和1946年,当时的国民政府先后三次提出了建造武汉跨江大
桥的计划,然而由于国力贫弱,计划最终搁置。
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709&img.jpg
↑武汉长江大桥通车盛况
新中国成立后,京汉铁路和粤汉铁路之间运输全部由往来于武昌和汉口的驳船和轮渡接
转。由于货物运输量剧增,同时轮渡受到天气影响较大,轮渡中转模式已满足不了经济
发展的迫切需要。1950年,时任铁道部部长的滕代远刚刚接手主持全国铁路工作不久,
就根据中央指示,着手筹划修建武汉长江大桥,并进行初步勘探调查。
1954年1月21日,周恩来主持召开政务院203次会议,听取滕代远关于筹建武汉长江大桥
的情况报告,讨论通过了《关于修建武汉长江大桥的决议》。中央任命彭敏为铁道部大
桥工程局局长,杨在田、崔文炳任副局长,时任中共武汉市委书记王任重兼大桥工程局
政委,汪菊潜为总工程师。
“我们现在说的武汉长江大桥应该称‘武汉长江大桥工程’。”据滕代远的儿子滕久昕
回忆,整个工程包括:一座横跨长江的铁路、公路两用桥,汉阳岸引桥和武昌岸引桥,
跨越汉水的长300米的铁路桥一座,长322米的公路桥一座,跨越武汉三镇市区总长480
米的跨线桥10座,一条长12.9公里的铁路联络线和一条长4.5公里的公路联络线,一座
新建的汉阳火车站。
在得到周恩来总理批准后,铁道部派出代表团携带建桥全部图纸、资料赴前苏联首都莫
斯科,请他们帮助进行最后鉴定。前苏联政府指定了25位优秀桥梁专家组成鉴定委员会
,由前苏联交通部副部长、时任桥梁工程总局局长的古拉梁夫任主席,对中方的方案提
出了53个问题,详细对比,反复研究。最后,终于通过了这次鉴定。
此后,铁道部向中央提出报告,要求聘请前苏联专家组来华支援,周恩来总理迅速予以
批准。1954年7月左右,以康士坦丁·谢尔盖维奇·西林为首的前苏联专家陆续抵达大
桥工程局并开始工作。
1955年9月1日,武汉长江大桥工程作为“一五”计划重点工程开工了。
只有成,没有败;只许成,不许败
“我有个新的想法,但是鉴定委员会里都是我的前辈,老头子是技术权威,我不好说话
。这个新办法在我国也没有用过,因为苏联没有长江。”
工程启动,正值新中国刚成立不久,虽然有前苏联专家援助,但具体施工建设、试验和
实施都是我国专家慢慢摸索出来的。
1955年7月,经过大量的试验工作后大桥正式开始施工。主桥及两端引桥由大桥局施工
,两岸的联络线及跨线桥等工程分别由汉阳工程段和中国人民解放军铁道兵施工。大桥
施工中得到了全国各地的支持,大跨度钢梁制造任务由海关桥梁工厂和沈阳桥梁工厂承
担;湖北省、武汉市数十万干部群众到工地参加义务劳动。武汉长江大桥正式开工建设
,从干部到工人,人人争作贡献,个个争当模范,在高空深水、特大洪水等恶劣环境下
顽强拼搏,第一次在万里长江上展示了中国人民大无畏的牺牲精神和英雄气概。修建长
江大桥的热情,背后是全国人民建设新中国的强烈愿望。
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&img.jpg
↑火车通过武汉长江大桥铁路桥。(资料图片)
武汉长江大桥一共有八个桥墩,靠近武昌岸的八号墩由大桥局海外分公司原副总经理周
一桥的父亲周璞(武汉长江大桥设计小组成员)负责设计。桥墩是桥梁的基础,周一桥
告诉记者,民国时期国内外桥梁专家对长江大桥先后开展4次勘探、设计,均因资金、
技术问题无功而返,“桥墩建设是最大难题”。
当时,在深水中建造桥墩主要采取“气压沉箱法”:先将一个大沉箱沉入江底,充入高
压空气排出江水,供工人下到江底直接施工。1934年由茅以升主持兴建的钱塘江大桥就
是使用这种工艺。但这种工艺的安全极限是水下35米,长江武汉段汛期水深超过40米,
一年中能施工的时间仅为3个月。
“这个时候,西林提出采用最新的‘管柱钻孔法’进行施工。”周一桥介绍说。周璞在
其回忆录里这样写道,西林见到彭敏的第一次谈话出人意料。西林开门见山地说:“在
莫斯科开的鉴定会我是参加了的,设计文件我也研究过,我认为建造大桥基础不宜采用
‘气压沉箱法’施工。我有个新的想法,但是鉴定委员会里都是我的前辈,老头子是技
术权威,我不好说话。这个新办法在我国也没有用过,因为苏联没有长江。现在,希望
得到你的支持。我们暂时先不说出去,只和你一个人谈谈。”随后,西林用几天时间详
细给彭敏讲述了他的“管柱钻孔法”的技术理论、施工方法及优越性。
讲得通俗一点,管柱钻孔法就是先将每一个管桩定好位,再打桩钻孔取土,“就像把一
把筷子插在岩面上”。
彭敏听西林介绍之后,意识到此事非同小可,随即组织了有双方工程技术人员参加的会
议。中方人员提出了许多问题和疑点,但是抱有极大兴趣。与西林同来的几位前苏联桥
梁专家却提出相反意见,理由是:施工方案已经苏联国家鉴定委员会通过,没有必要大
改动;其次,这种新方法谁也没干过,试验来不及。这位专家还讲了一个笑话:“一个
人用右手摸自己的右耳朵,只要一抬手就摸到了;但是现在,你们却要把手绕到脖子后
面再去摸,还能摸到吗?”西林站起来严肃地说:“同志们,我们讨论的是桥梁基础的
施工方法,不是摸耳朵!”
大桥局立即组织人员在岸上和江心进行了多种试验,提出有些建筑桥墩基础的大型机械
设备也要重新设计制造,钻头、钻机、震动打桩机都需制造和改进。在试验最困难的时
候,大桥局党委曾向铁道部党组写了一份报告,其中有一句写道:“试验工作是成败的
关键。”而几天后收到铁道部党组的批复却是:“只有成,没有败;只许成,不许败!
”1955年上半年,国务院就新方案作出批示:“继续进行试验,并将新旧方案进行比较
。”
但风波到此并没有停息。国内发生的事情还是传到了国外,前苏联政府也知道了。为了
调查事情的原因,1955年底,前苏联政府派出以运输工程部部长哥热夫尼柯夫为首的代
表团来华,主要是参观长江大桥的施工,随团还来了桥梁专家葛洛葛洛夫、金果连柯、
沙格洛夫等一大批工程界权威。西林知道后,内心也很紧张,强作笑脸对老朋友彭敏说
:“我就准备接受审判吧。”
苏联代表团10多天的“参观”,实际上是审查西林提出的方案。他们审看文件、查阅资
料,同时看现场施工,听取西林的“答辩”。这期间,彭敏惴惴不安,找到滕代远说:
“假如结果是不同意这个方案,把西林撤回国去怎么办?”滕代远坚定地说:“还按西
林的方案干!”“假如……”滕代远说:“没有那么多假如!”
不久,滕代远在北京铁道部接见了西林,告知两国政府已批准建桥技术文件,现在可以
放开手脚大干了。
为了掌握这种在当时非常先进的技术,两国工程人员在长江北岸龟山、凤凰山山麓及江
心连夜苦战,进行了一系列艰苦的试验,建起了35个试验管柱,最终试验成功,并立即
应用在长江大桥的建设上。由于这种方法比之前的气压沉箱法更容易操作,使得大桥的
工程效率大大提高,为大桥的提前建成起到了重要的作用。大桥原计划4年零1个月完工
,实际仅用2年零1个月。
“桥坚强”,质保最少一百年
“武汉长江大桥设计一流、施工一流,养护也是一流的,大桥的寿命至少要延长100年
。”
武汉长江大桥工程全国关心,举世瞩目。滕代远在回忆录里写道:“我认为武汉长江大
桥又经济,又坚固,又美观,又迅速,又安全。这个桥的质量至少保证一百年。”
在前苏联专家的建议下,武汉长江大桥的钢梁由原定的9孔简支梁改为使用三联三孔连
续梁。为了适应长江风大、浪急、水深、流速等特点,同时也为了不影响武汉港船舶繁
忙的运营作业和长江航运的正常通航,正桥钢梁架设采用了架梁技术难度较高的悬臂架
梁方案。
钢梁从桥梁工厂运到工地,每根杆件就有20多吨重,建设者们需要将杆件一根又一根地
悬空拼装起来,完成主桥钢梁架设。
架梁不易,铆合更难。1956年10月,两岸架设桥梁的工作开始了,两条钢铁巨龙向江心
日日接近,新的桥墩从水中一个个站立起来,迎接着钢梁的到来。当汉阳的钢梁向江心
伸出第一孔时,有人报告:铆合质量发现问题!
这样大的钢梁,在工地进行铆合是个复杂的技术工作,每孔钢梁跨度为128米,最厚的
部分达到170厘米,而使用的铆钉直径是26厘米,现场将铆钉烧热后,甩递到作业平台
,趁热用跳动风顶联合铆钉枪铆接。要确保质量,就必须使铆钉与孔眼填充密实,这样
才能使铆钉永不松动。
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↑雷锋同志与武汉长江大桥合影。(资料图片)
曾担任武汉长江大桥施工组织设计小组组长的赵煜澄回忆,大桥钢梁拼装两个月后,发
现固定桥梁杆件的上万颗铆钉与孔眼间有2毫米缝隙,出现松动。“拼装马上停工,直
到新铆钉填满缝隙,先期铆钉全部弃用”。
前苏联专家也从国内休假返回,反映他们也遇到了同样的问题,正在研究改进。我们从
未遇到铆合这么厚的钢梁,这样长、这般粗的铆钉。但在铆工及技术人员、前苏联专家
的共同钻研下,获得了一套完整的铆合长铆钉和提高钉孔密实度的经验。同时,将不合
格的铆钉全部铲下来,重新铆合,不仅铆钉全部填满钉孔,而且高出相关国标5%,终于
解决了这个难题。铆合工作停工1个月之后,又重新启动了。
相比摩天大楼、大型机场等建筑主要承受自身重量荷载,架在峡谷、江河、大海上的大
型桥梁,不仅要承受自身重量,还得经受大量汽车甚至高速列车通过带来的巨大冲击。
中铁大桥勘测设计院院长张敏说,桥墩要防洪水、抗地震、防船撞,桥身还需面对来自各
个方向的压、弯、扭、拉等形式受力,“夸张点说,就像揉面、拉面过程中的面条,一不
小心就断裂”。
据统计,自1957年10月15日建成通车以来,武汉长江大桥虽历经7次较大洪水、77次轮
船撞击,但至今仍十分健康。
1993年5月28日,曾担任武汉长江大桥前苏联专家组组长的西林再次受邀登上大桥。参
观后,他对随行人员说:“武汉长江大桥设计一流、施工一流,养护也是一流的,大桥
的寿命至少要延长100年。”
“桥坚强”的美誉,不仅源自过硬的质量,也离不开对桥梁的精心养护。60多年来,不
论严寒酷暑、刮风下雨,武汉铁路局武汉桥工段三代“守桥人”始终虔心呵护、默默奉
献,养护维修水平一直位居全国前列。如今,武汉长江大桥的维护经验已成为全球桥梁
维护的样板。
桥长近1.4公里,来回一趟2.8公里,“80后”养桥工人陈卿明记不清每天要走多少个来
回。作为一名年轻的工长,“桥三代”陈卿明爱动脑筋、善于思考,是同事们心中的“
麻烦粉碎机”。大桥上的更换钩螺栓作业最棘手,陈卿明根据钩螺栓的形状,研制出一
种焊头卡,以前两个人干的活,现在一个人就能轻松搞定;通过大桥的列车密度、速度
增加后,木枕使用周期越来越短,陈卿明带领同事研制出了一种塑胶垫圈,安装在护轨
下方,延长了木枕的使用周期。
在武汉长江大桥工作了30年的“桥二代”聂亚林对养桥工艺、技术的变化感受颇深。他
说:“这些年,大桥养护经历了传统手工时代到机械化、再到信息化智能化时代的跨越
。”
武汉铁路局武汉桥工段发布的“体检报告”显示:目前全桥无变位下沉,桥墩可承受6
万吨压力,可抵御10万立方米流量、5米流速的洪水,可抗8级以下地震和强力冲撞,
24805吨钢梁、8个桥墩无一裂纹,无弯曲变形,百万颗铆钉没发现松动,全桥无重大病
害。
在长江上修二三十个桥
毛泽东问:“有外国专家在这里可以修这样的桥,如果没有可以修了吗?”杨在田回答
:“可以修了。”“真的可以修了吗?”他又问了一句。“确实可以修了!”
毛泽东对武汉这片白云黄鹤之地特别喜爱,新中国成立后他曾37次到武汉,居住最长的
一次达168天;曾多次畅游长江,游程总计达100多公里。毛泽东畅游长江,与武汉长江
大桥建设有着密切联系。没有哪一座建筑像武汉长江大桥这样引起过毛泽东如此多的关
注。
1956年5月底,毛泽东从长沙来到武汉。毛泽东决定乘船视察武汉长江大桥工地并听取
关于大桥建设的汇报。陪同毛泽东视察的有杨尚昆、罗瑞卿、王任重、张体学、李尔重
、陈再道等,汇报的是大桥工程局局长彭敏。
毛泽东问得很详细,不仅问了工程的进展、遇到的困难、人才的培养、施工的管理,还
询问一些桥梁科技的专门知识,如什么叫压气沉箱法、沉箱病是什么病、什么是拆装式
结构、如何进行流水作业等。毛泽东对交给他的汇报材料也看得非常认真,连材料上多
印了一个“4”字,也指了出来。
↑前苏联专家西林(右一)与桥梁专家唐寰澄(前排左一)等在现场进行技术交流。(
资料图片)
边听边看,毛泽东对大桥建设十分满意。他说:“中央提出十二年赶上世界先进科技水
平,不一定都得十二年,长江大桥这是三四年,就是世界水平了。”他还对彭敏说:“
将来长江上修上二十个、三十个桥,黄河上修上几十个,到处能走。”
也许是建桥职工这种排除一切困难、创造人间奇迹的精神让他深受感动,他提出,我要
游泳。当然,是在长江里。毛泽东首次畅游长江时多次穿过水流湍急的桥墩区域。游泳
过后,他兴致未尽,挥毫写下了脍炙人口的名篇《水调歌头·游泳》。
这是一首即兴之作,反映出毛泽东当时舒畅乐观的心情,毛泽东对此词也十分满意。当
年的12月4日、5日,他在分别给黄炎培、周世钊的复信中,将此词录赠给他们,以答其
“历次赠诗的雅意”。当时信中的题目均为《水调歌头·长江》,给黄的词抄错了一个
字:将“逝者如斯夫”写成了“逝者如斯乎”。事后毛泽东又于12月16日,再次致信黄
,特别指出了这个错字。在《诗刊》发表时,毛泽东又将题改为《水调歌头·游泳》。
词中所写“一桥飞架南北,天堑变通途”,指的正是建设中的武汉长江大桥。
1957年9月6日,毛泽东再一次来到了武汉。当时,武汉长江大桥已经建成,正在进行桥
面的装饰和场地的整治,准备复验。武汉铁路局武汉长江大桥段第一任副段长,已经89
岁高龄的范孝廉回忆,毛泽东从桥上信步而过,看见有一排栏杆上漆着不同的颜色,便
问何意。大桥局的两位领导说:“这是让武汉人民来挑选,看用什么颜色好。”他笑着
称赞“这就是走群众路线嘛”,又问曾兼任大桥局首任书记、政委的王任重:“你是湖
北的负责人,你看漆什么颜色好。”王任重答:“我还没有想好呢。”大家便问毛主席
哪一种颜色好。他笑着用手指了指蓝天、又指了指江水。大家明白了。“落霞与孤鹜齐
飞,秋水共长天一色”,桥栏应选用与天、水颜色相和谐的色彩。桥栏后来被漆为银灰
色。
夕阳西下,夜幕降临,下游的汉口华灯初上。毛泽东停下脚步,手扶栏杆眺望着,关切
地问大桥局的几位领导:“有外国专家在这里可以修这样的桥,如果没有可以修了吗?
”杨在田回答:“可以修了。”“真的可以修了吗?”他又问了一句。“确实可以修了
!”杨在田充满信心地回答。
龟山蛇山上 万杆红旗飘
一列列火车从龟山脚下开进大桥下层,轰隆作响,这标志着阻隔了几十年的京汉、粤汉
铁路实现对接。武汉九省通衢、内陆核心地位名副其实。
1957年9月25日,武汉长江大桥全部完工,并于当天下午举行正式试通车;第二天的武
汉市委机关报《长江日报》作了重头报道,在《江花》文艺副刊上转载了郭沫若不久前
发表在《人民日报》上的一首《长江大桥》长诗。
一条铁带栓上了长江的腰,在今天竟提前两年完成了。
u=271195366,415910667&fm=173&s=0ACA7A2308F677ADFE187CC20100E0A1&w=472&h=709&
img.jpg
↑武汉长江大桥开始架梁
有位诗人把它比成洞箫,我觉得比得过于纤巧。
一般人又爱把它比成长虹,我觉得也一样不见佳妙。
长虹是个半圆的弧形,旧式的拱桥倒还勉强相肖,但这,却是坦坦荡荡的一条。
长虹是彩色层层,瞬息消逝,但这,是钢骨结构,永远坚牢。
我现在又把它比成腰带,这可好吗?不,也不太好。
那吗,就让我不加修饰地说吧:
它是难可比拟的,不要枉费心机,
它就是,它就是,武汉长江大桥!
——郭沫若(1957年)
1957年10月15日,武汉长江大桥建成通车,整个武汉沸腾了。国人在这一天圆了近半个
世纪的梦想,从此“一桥飞架南北,天堑变通途”。当地报纸不吝篇幅,记录下大桥通
车的盛况:
“武汉长江大桥昨日正式通车。昨天上午五万多人在武汉长江大桥举行了隆重的落成通
车典礼。公路桥通车开始了。这时,成群成群的和平鸽,五彩缤纷的气球,飞向天空。
在乐声中,一支由三百多辆汽车组成的队伍,载着参加观礼的代表、棉花和粮食,浩浩
荡荡地开进宽阔的公路桥面。汽车后面是由12条龙灯、10个狮子和10个彩莲船组成的文
艺队伍。当载着建设长江大桥的90名先进生产者的三部解放牌汽车穿过的时候,停立在
两旁的人们都向先进生产者们投以崇敬和爱戴的眼光。许多人离开队伍,将自己的鲜花
掷到他们手中,将五颜六色的纸屑撒在他们身上。最后,参加典礼的人群跟在汽车后面
前进,他们兴奋地举起鲜花和头巾,如同碧绿的潮水一起一伏的从武昌流向汉阳。”
建成通车仪式上的热烈场景,许多人回忆起来依然历历在目。大桥局员工吕永兴老人回
忆说:“那天人山人海,桥两边插满了旗帜,文艺表演由湖北省和武汉市组织,还有很
多是群众自发组织的,有舞龙、划旱船、大秧歌,那天唱得最响的一句就是‘龟山蛇山
上,万杆红旗飘’。”
通车典礼后的第二天,武汉市民仍沉浸在欢乐之中,参观大桥的兴趣不减。但由于大风
狂吹,人群拥挤,大桥出现明显晃动。人们出于对大桥质量的关心,不断地打电话到大
桥局和《长江日报》报社编辑部,询问大桥是否出了质量问题。
为了回答群众的疑问,《长江日报》迅速派驻点采访大桥建设的记者宫强到大桥局问个
究竟。到了大桥局,宫强直接闯进了前苏联专家组组长西林的办公室。在通过翻译贾参
向西林说明来意后,西林一边微笑着让宫强坐下饮茶,一边从大桥的设计思路谈起。他
说:“长江是世界上第三条大河,在这样的大江大河上修桥,我们是慎之又慎。大桥的
设计综合考虑了多个因素,包括江面刮起8级大风,武汉地区发生地震,铁路上两列装
满货物的火车对开在桥中间紧急刹车,公路桥上的汽车也同样紧急刹车,巨轮撞在桥墩
上等。即使这几个因素同时发生,大桥仍将坚如磐石。”
西林还对宫强说:“大桥的桥墩可以长期使用,钢梁可以使用100年,如果保养得好,
还不止100年。至于大桥遇大风而摇摆,是因为钢梁有弹性,摇摆是正常的,如果不摇
摆,反而不正常了。”他怕宫强还没有理解,最后又说:“你看公路桥有三道伸缩缝,
就是准备让钢梁伸缩的。”
事实充分证明,武汉长江大桥建成通车已过一个甲子,大桥经过了各种考验。如今,几
十万个铆钉还很少发现有松动,虽有巨轮先后几次撞到桥墩,大桥仍巍然屹立。
一列列火车从龟山脚下开进大桥下层,轰隆作响,这标志着阻隔了几十年的京汉、粤汉
铁路实现对接。武汉九省通衢、内陆核心地位名副其实。
武汉长江大桥的建成,使火车由轮渡过江的一个小时缩短到现在的2分钟,在20世纪80
年代,大桥铁路每昼夜通过列车170列,公路流量为3万辆;90年代,大桥铁路钢轨由43
公斤级更换为60公斤级无缝钢轨后,日均通过列车和公路通过汽车流量均翻了一番。进
入新世纪,铁路提速,列车通过量再次增加,现在,大桥上每天的列车通过量已增加到
300列。
大桥通车后,社会经济效益十分巨大,仅通车的头5年,通过的运输量就达8000多万吨
,缩短火车运输时间约2400万车小时,节约的货运费超过了整个工程造价。随着国民经
济的不断发展,大桥的通过量也不断增加,直接间接的经济效益更难以计数,在国民经
济建设中发挥了无可替代的重大作用。
以桥为荣 以桥为福
1954年到1956年,全国支援的人力、物资源源不断地运到武汉。北京的工程技术人员,
四川的技工,河南的辅助工,来自五湖四海的人们在武汉汇聚。
很少有一座城市与桥结缘像武汉这样深厚。前几年,一个武汉人出差,在火车上聊天,
外地人问他,武汉长江大桥有几个桥墩?武汉人回答不出,外地人说,你不是正宗的武
汉人。
这座桥与武汉人有不解之缘;这座桥使武汉人有了大桥情结;这座桥使武汉兴起“大桥
文化”,而且经久不衰。
今天,“武汉—大桥”很自然地融为了一体,桥梁镌刻着一座城市的记忆。
1957年10月,武汉长江大桥通车了,汉阳建桥新村派出所时任所长王卫民却烦恼起来,
他回忆说,“在我们这里,可以经常听到这样的对话”。
“同志,我们生了个小孩,请您给俺登个记吧,取名就叫‘建桥’。”
“同志,请您换个别的名字吧,叫这个名字的太多了。”派出所的工作人员说。
“那就换成‘汉桥’好啦。”婴儿的父母恳求说。
“‘汉桥’的名字也很多了。这样同年、同月、同名字的多了,会给我们在户口管理造
成很多麻烦的。”
有的家长为了让自己的子女和“桥”字挨个边,费尽心思也让子女的名字带个“桥”字
。因此,除“建桥”“汉桥”以外,还有“金桥”“银桥”“青桥”“新桥”和“学桥
”等名字。当年大桥局党委号召全体建桥职工虚心向前苏联专家学习。特提出“建成学
会”的口号。1955年9月,一个职工家属生了对双胞胎,一个就取名“建成”,一个则
取名叫“学会”。
在短短的两年间,建桥新村所出生的婴儿中叫“建桥”的有25个,叫“汉桥”的有l5个
,叫“建成”的有9个。建桥的职工们都以用“桥”给子女命名而感到骄傲和自豪。
在众多与武汉长江大桥合影的老照片中,一张雷锋同志与桥头堡的合影引起了记者的注
意。
1958年11月初,18岁的雷锋被鞍钢录用。在从原工作地湖南长沙县团山湖农场去往鞍钢
途中,雷锋与同行者杨必华特意在武汉作了停留,参观了通车刚一周年的长江大桥。据
杨必华描述,“我们迎着初升的太阳走上武昌街头,径直朝长江大桥走去。清凉的江风
吹拂着我们的面颊,辽阔的长江,雄伟的大桥,使我们目眩神驰,赞叹不已。雷锋站在
江边仰望着大桥,眼里闪着激动的光亮,他忽然说了句‘原来全是钢铁呀!’……雷锋
指着大桥说,下层铁路桥是钢铁造的,上层公路桥也是钢铁造的,‘这需要多少钢铁呀
。’”
据雷锋的战友乔安山回忆,雷锋在他众多的照片中最爱3张,其中一张就是这张他在武
汉长江大桥前的留影,这也是雷锋在武汉唯一的留影,“雷锋当时告诉我,这就是咱们
建国以后修的大桥,底下跑火车,上头跑汽车,多漂亮”。
在汉阳小龟山脚下,有个建桥街道大桥社区,这里住着一群从天南海北来的人们,他们
的命运与大桥紧密相连。60多年前,他们为支援大桥建设扎根于此,如今他们的子孙后
代仍然在延续着他们的大桥情结。
清晨,在汉阳桥头堡,伴随着轮船尖锐的汽笛声,火车的呼啸声,大桥社区的居民们在
这里散步、健身,他们对这样的声音已经习以为常。
大桥社区82岁的老奶奶李惠洁,每天都要对着大桥练练嗓。大桥串起了她一生的时光。
60多年前,李惠洁是北京铁路局材料厂的一名木工,响应建设大桥的号召,调到武汉,
并在武汉安了家,子女们也留在了武汉。李惠洁说:“在我们的思想上,以桥为荣,以
桥为福。现在,我一开窗户就能看到大桥。”
1954年到1956年,长江大桥建设进入紧张的关键时期,全国支援的人力、物资源源不断
地运到武汉。北京的工程技术人员,山东的转业复员军人,四川的技工,河南的辅助工
,来自五湖四海、操着不同口音的人们在武汉汇聚。
六十年一甲子,昔日的建设者们,如今已经满头白发。1955年,新婚3个月的王秀峰夫
妇从天津新河基地材料厂调到武汉,那时候,汉阳很荒凉,钟家村还是一片泥塘。他们
租住了一个小房间,买来锅碗瓢盆,就开始了新生活。王秀峰的妻子郭仕珍说:“一个
提包,一个拿被褥行李,我们坐人力车,再坐划子(小船),就这样过来了。”
王秀峰会开二十多个不同种类的吊车,是一名四级工,他参加了做桥墩子、打混凝土、
架设钢梁等工程。“大桥的每个钢件每个铸件,在我心里都有数。每一根米字钢梁,立
柱16吨,4个斜杆9吨一个,下悬36吨,上悬35吨,到现在我都记得清清楚楚。”王秀峰
说。
最让王秀峰感到心潮澎湃的,还是他架设完最后一根钢梁,大桥建成的时刻。王秀峰回
忆:“那个场景可热闹了。我操作下悬吊机吊着钢梁,钢梁上扎着两个大彩球,稳稳当
当落下最后一根钢梁,当时一落下来,底下掌声热烈,锣鼓喧天。”
从青春正盛到白发苍苍,再到祖孙四代24口人生活在武汉,他们夫妇的一生给大桥做了
生动的注脚。
世界桥梁看中国 中国桥梁看武汉
近5年来,世界超过一半的大跨度桥梁出现在中国,“最长、最高、最大、最快”等纪
录,几乎被武汉建桥人“垄断”
在解决了大桥钢梁铆接松动后不久,滕代远利用到武汉检查工作之际,又召集了大桥局
干部大会,他表示:大桥建设好了,可以培养我国建桥的大批人才,训练出更多的工人
修桥队伍。
滕代远的秘书卜占稳在日记里回忆道:“震动打桩机原来是前苏联专家发明的,拿到中
国大桥局来做试验。武汉大桥局对这个机器进行改进,增加了换挡功能,下管柱遇到土
质坚硬时可以换挡。开始是200吨的力量,换二挡是250吨,换三挡就是320吨的力量。
……他们(指前苏联专家)见到后,感觉很不错,将图纸复制一份带走了。”
中铁大桥局董事长刘自明介绍,武汉长江大桥当年摸索的建桥技术,早已被更先进、更
经济的工艺所取代,“但万里长江第一桥,为我国桥梁建设者们播下了自主创新的自信
种子”。
虽然武汉长江大桥、南京长江大桥先后通车,但仍难以缩小中国桥梁与世界先进水平的
巨大差距。1982年,参与过武汉长江大桥建设的李赢沧,受邀参访日本本州四国联络桥
。施工现场上千米跨度的大桥,起重3000吨的吊船,让他内心震撼不已。“国内最大吊
船才35吨,我们什么时候能赶上日本?”
与国外同行存在的巨大差距,让国内桥梁建设者们更有动力发奋追赶。如今,中国的桥
梁建设团队已经将国际上的竞争对手远远甩到了身后。
2018年1月22日16时28分,福建平潭海峡公铁两用大桥建设工地上,中铁大桥局集团有
限公司成功吊装世界最重钢桁梁,该钢桁梁重3150吨,相当于3000多辆小汽车的重量。
最重的钢桁梁,需要最“壮”的起吊船。此次起吊任务由“大力士”大桥海鸥号承担,
该起吊船为国内起重量最大、起升高度最高,起重重量3600吨,由中铁大桥局集团有限
公司自主研发。
从武汉长江大桥的20吨,到如今的3150吨,中国建桥军团一次次刷新着纪录。
在工艺上——从只能建造类似武汉长江大桥的钢桁梁结构,到现在世界排名前十的斜拉
桥、悬索桥、拱桥中,中国桥梁占席均超过“半壁江山”,建设工艺创新不断惊艳世界。
在材料上——武汉长江大桥所用桥梁钢全部从国外进口,芜湖长江大桥上首次使用国产
Q370(一平方毫米能承受37公斤的拉力)桥梁钢,在建沪通长江大桥使用的国产桥梁钢强
度达到Q500。
在装备上——实现国产化的大型桩工机械、施工船舶、运架梁设备等先进建桥装备,使
大型桥梁建设从武汉长江大桥时需举全国之力,变为现在一家企业就能像“搭积木”一
样同时建造10多座大桥。
芜湖长江大桥、苏通长江大桥、贵州坝陵河大桥、杭州湾跨海大桥……一座座打通天堑
阻隔的中国桥梁,使中国高速公路、铁路纵横成网,为经济社会发展提供有力支撑。
中国桥梁究竟实力几何,还需在海外市场上与国际桥梁企业同台竞技来检验。中铁大桥
局集团有限公司海外分公司原副总经理周一桥介绍说,本世纪初,大桥局首个海外中标
的孟加拉国帕克西大桥,设计、施工材料、施工试验结果认证等都是使用美国标准。如
今,按中国标准建设的“中国桥”已遍布亚洲、非洲、欧洲等大洲。
“世界桥梁看中国,中国桥梁看武汉。”全国工程设计大师徐恭义说,近5年来,世界
超过一半的大跨度桥梁出现在中国,“最长、最高、最大、最快”等纪录,几乎被武汉
建桥人“垄断”。目前,长江上已建和在建的大桥有近百座,其中七成以上由武汉桥企
设计、施工或监理。武汉已形成从设计、施工到钢梁制造的造桥“一条龙”产业链。
数据显示,世界在建的主跨1000米以上悬索桥有13座,中国占9座;世界建成和在建跨
度600米以上的斜拉桥有21座,中国占17座;世界已建跨度420米以上拱桥有12座,中国
占9座;世界已建跨度250米以上预应力混凝土桥梁有20座,中国占12座。这些世界级大
桥中,约八成由武汉建桥企业承建或参建。
“企业快速发展得益于湖北、全国的经济发展,特别是随着‘一带一路’倡议的推进,
以武汉长江大桥为样板,我们将在桥梁建造技术上完成更多世界级‘高难动作’。”中
铁大桥局集团有限公司董事长刘自明说。
结 语
著名桥梁专家茅以升说,从一座桥的修建上,可以看出当地工商业的荣枯和工艺水平高
低。近几年中国桥梁的成长,就是国民经济快速发展、综合国力快速提升的缩影。从一
桥飞架,天堑变通途的武汉长江大桥,到勾连“一带一路”的基础设施节点工程——孟
加拉国帕德玛大桥,代表的都是国家的经济发展和战略需要。安得五彩虹,驾天作长桥
。从武汉长江大桥开始,中国桥梁建设者们凭借扎扎实实的奋斗、自力更生的精神、勇
担重任的勇气,让“中国桥”不断迈向新的征程,实现新的跨越。一座座大桥,或飞跃
惊涛骇浪,或穿越悬崖陡壁,在世界桥梁史上书写着新的“中国篇章”。
w********2
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当时,在深水中建造桥墩主要采取“气压沉箱法”:先将一个大沉箱沉入江底,充入高
压空气排出江水,供工人下到江底直接施工。1934年由茅以升主持兴建的钱塘江大桥就
是使用这种工艺。但这种工艺的安全极限是水下35米,长江武汉段汛期水深超过40米,
一年中能施工的时间仅为3个月。
w********2
发帖数: 632
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重庆主城地段长江水深:103米到108米。
嘉陵江水深:68米。
嘉陵江:
嘉陵江(Jialingjiang River),是长江上游的一条支流。发源于秦岭北麓的宝鸡市凤
县。因凤县境内的嘉陵谷而得名。嘉陵江西南流经陕西省汉中市略阳县,穿大巴山,至
四川省广元市元坝区昭化镇接纳白龙江,南流经四川省南充市到重庆市注入长江。流域
面积近16万平方千米,是长江支流中流域面积最大,长度仅次于汉江,流量仅次于岷江
的河流。流经主要城市有宝鸡、汉中、广元、南充、重庆。
嘉陵江,长江上游支流,因流经陕西凤县东北嘉陵谷而得名。 (一说来源《水经注》二
十(漾水)载:"汉水南入嘉陵道而为嘉陵水" )发源于秦岭北麓的陕西省凤县代王山。干
流流经陕西省、甘肃省、四川省、重庆市,在重庆市朝天门汇入长江。主要支流有:八
渡河、西汉水、白龙江、渠江、涪江等。全长1345千米 ,干流流域面积3.92万平方千
米,是长江支流中流域面积最大 , 长度仅次于汉江,流量仅次于岷江的大河。
a***e
发帖数: 27968
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尼玛巴拿马运河深度是15米不到

★ 发自iPhone App: ChinaWeb 1.1.5

【在 w********2 的大作中提到】
: 长江各河段的水深是多少?
: 推荐于2016-12-02
: 长江的深度不一,以下是主航道水深:
: 宜 宾--兰家沱 1.8米 中国的母亲河—长江
: 兰家沱――娄溪沟 2.5米
: 娄溪沟--羊角滩 2.7米
: 羊角滩--白 尾 2.9米
: 白 尾--武 桥 3.2米 长江源流沱沱河以下依次为通天河、金沙江。金沙江以下,岷
: 江口至长江入海口,长2884公里(荆江裁弯取直后,缩短航程80公里,为2800余公里)
: ,通称长江。在通称长江的各江段又有各自的名称。

n*****8
发帖数: 1
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重庆公交坠江 水深75米 水底声纳图曝光(图)
京港台:2018-10-29 05:36| 来源:红星新闻
A- A A+
重庆公交坠江 水深75米 水底声纳图曝光(图)
来源:倍可亲(backchina.com)
>>美国打折网,购物神价直播!
今天(28日)上午,重庆万州区长江二桥上发生一起交通事故,一辆公交车与一辆
轿车相撞后,冲破护栏掉入长江。目前,已打捞起2具遗体,救援行动仍在进行中。
最新消息,红星新闻今晚10点30分左右报道了现场声纳图(图来自蓝天救援队),
救援团队认为图中的长方形为出事的22路公交车。
据@平安万州 傍晚通报,公交坠江事件系公交行驶中突然越过中心实线,撞击对向
正常行驶小轿车后坠江。初步确认车上共有10余人。
@人民视频 依据警方通报,用演示动画还原事故过程。
新华社记者从相关部门获悉,该公交车(车内人数待查)由万州区江南新区往北滨
路行驶,当车行驶至万州长江二桥桥上时,与一辆由城区往江南新区行驶的小型轿车(
车内只有驾驶员)相撞,造成公交车失控冲破护栏坠入长江,小型轿车车辆受损。
早前有媒体援引重庆交警部门传来的消息,事故原因系女司机驾驶小轿车逆行撞上
公交。下午6点,万州警方发布通报称,经初步事故现场调查,系公交客车在行驶中突然
越过中心实线,撞击对向正常行驶的小轿车后冲上路沿,撞断护栏,坠入江中。根据调
查访问、调取公交客车沿线监控视频,初步确认当时公交客车上共有驾乘人员10多人。
目前,事故原因正进步调查中。
现场救援团队:出事公交车跌入超75米深的水底
据红星新闻报道,10月28日20:50,现场救援团队向万州市主要领导及在场媒体汇
报了救援最新进展。参与救援的蓝田救援队称目前已经初步定位车辆位置位于桥面缺口
下顺水流方向十几米处,但位置并不清晰,另一台声纳设备最早于明天凌晨一点运抵现
场。 此外,曾参与中山舰打捞工作的打捞队以及长江航道局的声纳设备、水下机器人
等救援力量也已经在接洽,将会在近期投入救援。
据介绍,目前三峡水库蓄水达到175米高程,而根据长江二桥施工图,桥面高度为
220米,所以坠落的22路公交车跌落的相对高度达到45米。而根据当地水文记录,车辆
跌落位置河床底部海拔为90米至85米左右,这意味着车辆如沉底,水深或超75米。
此外据新华社报道,16时许,记者登上了一艘武警重庆市总队船艇支队的搜救船,
这艘船上搭载有一台水下机器人;船上有多名蛙人已准备就绪,随时准备下潜搜救。
经过专业技术分析,现场搜救人员基本判明公交车沉水位置,车辆位于水下约68米
处。16时30分左右,水下机器人开始第一次下潜,准备通过其携带的高清摄像设备,将
相关视频信息传输给救援人员。但由于水下情况复杂,水下机器人在第一次下潜30多米
后,被迫上升返回。救援人员准备另择下潜地点,尽快到达公交车沉没位置。
记者19时许在事故现场看到,万州区夜间天气良好,夜幕降临后江上救援船只亮起
灯光继续搜救,工作人员继续忙碌。
60吨浮吊已到现场 拟吊起坠江大巴车
据四川日报消息,记者从四川路桥集团获悉,四川路桥集团的大型浮吊已赶到事故
发生现场,准备吊起坠江大巴车。相关负责人表示,项目部距万州二桥仅4公里左右,
今天中午接当地政府指令后,项目部立即组织了一架可载重60吨的浮吊和有经验的操作
人员前往,13时许抵达坠江现场。根据大巴车落水地点正在操控浮吊定位,因大巴车较
大,根据大巴车尺寸,工作人员正在现场编织特殊钢丝绳。待现场救援指挥部敲定救援
方案后,即可展开救援。
公交公司:有8名乘客上车刷卡
据公交公司从事故车辆上采集的数据显示,最后两名乘客上车刷卡的时间为9:59,
均为普通卡。9:52至9:59,共有8名乘客上车刷卡,其中3张卡为老人卡,其余卡均为普
通卡。
近10名家属登记失踪信息
今日16时许,新京报记者从万州交警支队获悉,涉事的小轿车女姓司机已被警方控
制,截至发稿时,已有近十名家属登记失踪信息。
警方进驻22路公交车公司
10月28日,封面新闻记者从22路公交车所在的公司获悉,目前,当地警方已进驻该
公司,对车上人员及随车的监控数据进行调查。公交公司相关负责人均未在公司办公区
,公司所有工作人员拒绝采访。
三部门组成联合工作组协助救援
据新华社报道,公交车坠江事故发生后,应急管理部党组书记黄明立即视频连线,
进行指挥调度,并派出由应急管理部副部长孙华山带队的工作组赶赴现场,指导救援处
置。重庆市消防总队50名指战员、5辆消防车、2艘冲锋舟已在现场开展救援。水上支队
及周边支队已做好增援准备。
交通运输部已派员与应急管理部、公安部组成联合工作组赴现场协助当地政府开展
救援。目前,现场有70余艘船舶正开展搜寻救援,海事部门对上下水船舶进行管控,要
求周边船舶减速慢行,统筹好水面搜寻和通航管理,防止发生次生事故。根据现场需要
,交通运输部上海打捞局专业救助力量正赶赴现场,部应急办、路网中心已部署上海至
重庆沿途高速路段做好通行保障。
此外,交通运输部将印发警示通报,要求各地交通运输部门落实安全监管责任,抓
紧排查安全隐患,督促企业落实安全生产主体责任,举一反三、汲取教训,采取有效措
施,坚决防范遏制重特大事故发生。
n*****8
发帖数: 1
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据介绍,目前三峡水库蓄水达到175米高程,而根据长江二桥施工图,桥面高度为220米
,所以坠落的22路公交车跌落的相对高度达到45米。而根据当地水文记录,车辆跌落位
置河床底部海拔为90米至85米左右,这意味着车辆如沉底,水深或超75米。
n*****8
发帖数: 1
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M******a
发帖数: 6723
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小将从来不要脸,被事实反复抽嘴巴,就是痴心不改。
w********9
发帖数: 8613
40
楼主还是不明白啊
“皖河口――燕子矶4.5米
燕子矶--龙爪岩10.5米 ”
燕子矶出现两次
这明显是《航道深度》(旱季最浅航行保证深度)
南京那面最深处的深度有几十米
“在1958年,长江的武汉长江大桥一带做试验时曾测量到江中水深30多米, 在下关浦口
间曾测到40米, 在江西湖北交界处有一处叫牛关矶的地方曾经测到103米的深度,但长
江口的深度只有10米左右,有时甚至会影响到正常的通航。”
这是1958年建桥完成时测量的。是《最深处深度》。那一年发大水是有名的。1954年发
水更厉害,为建桥测量到35米以上,但不到40米。
你最早的讨论是旱,其实是存水量。涉及的应该是《平均水深》
因此,你还在把三种水深混为一谈!
相关主题
48岁高龄南京长江大桥封闭大修27个月 民众争相留影在俄罗斯,听习近平讲昨天和今天的故事
如果公交是从南京大桥坠落,乘客有生还可能以前武汉,把自己叫中国的芝加哥
南京长江大桥比武汉长江大桥差太远了1910年的武汉有多牛
c****g
发帖数: 37081
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鹅毛当年是真心帮tg。要是梅毒掌权,米犹会不会真心扶持奴才?
n*****8
发帖数: 1
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船在大桥下不得不低头 一艘万吨轮艰难驶抵武汉
CCTV.com 2007年09月21日 21:40 来源:武汉晚报
"江夏文"号进汉线路图
"江夏文"号
资料记载,1931年,美国万吨级油轮“加利福尼亚”号自长江口上溯至武汉。
1968年,南京长江大桥通车后,受净空限制、沿江的浅滩等不利因素影响,万吨轮
无法抵达武汉。
昨日(20日),武汉创新江海运输公司所属的万吨轮“江夏文”号终于抵达武汉。
“江夏文”号长而扁,两台发动机、两只螺旋桨,比一般货船显得肥大。在“驾龄
”22年的船长雷建国带领下,记者探访了这艘抵达武汉载货吨位最大、货舱容积最大、
航速最快的万吨货轮。
■桅杆自拆4.68米“矮化”船高
万吨轮从宁波到武汉,必须穿越长江航段的13座长江大桥,其中阻碍最大的南京长
江大桥净空最低,仅有30.03米,在最高水位下,船舶允许通航高度仅为20.31米。
“江夏文”号船高30.47米,装满铁矿粉后,水面以上高23.33米,还有3.02米给卡
住了!此时,该船“尖板眼”发挥威力——可拆卸桅杆,现场拆卸后,可降低4.68米的
高度,这样顺利过桥了。
■空载返航过大桥要像潜艇加水“下沉”
在返航途中,因为船内空载,水面以上船体高度为26.57米,就显得更高了,自拆
桅杆后还有21.89米。
雷建国介绍,他们采用加压载水的方式,让船变重,船身也可降一些,轮船尾部螺
旋桨也可下沉,好比潜水艇入海一样,这样就可通过大桥了。
■“扁平大肚”舱深三层楼高
“江夏文”号长128米、宽21.6米,长度比一个正规足球场还长,宽大的甲板上可
起降直升机。最令人称奇的是船深有9.4米,近三层楼高,因此,舱容达14591立方米,
这次只装载了12060吨铁矿粉。
雷建国表示,船体采用扁平大肚外观,既多装铁矿石,也能减少船高,还能多“吃
”水,行驶更平稳。
■船舶可抗8级大风
宁波北仑港沿海港口,经常遭遇台风等恶劣天气。该船配有无线上网设备,查询天
气预报,预订沿途专业天气预报。船舶可抗8级大风,在风雨中也可航行。
■1.6万吨“大块头”时速等同轮渡
装了12060吨铁矿粉后,“江夏文”号总重达1.6万多吨,可这个庞然大物在江面上
跑得并不慢。
经测算,其航速为12.12节,按照每节为1.852公里计算,相当22公里/小时,等同
武汉过江轮渡的航速。
■一年里只有5个月能来武汉
受到长江水涨落、沿途浅险滩的影响,“江夏文”号每年只能5—9月份到武汉,其
他时间,在长江安徽芜湖段及以下航段营运。据了解,这5个月里,“江夏文”号万吨
轮每月来汉两次,为武钢送来大批优质进口铁矿粉。
[现场目击] 记者随海巡艇 护卫万吨轮抵港
昨下午3时,长江武汉段阳逻水域,宽阔的江面上,一个“水上城堡”缓缓溯江而
上,这是即将停靠武钢工业港码头的首艘万吨货轮——“江夏文”号。
3时15分,江面上隐隐约约浮现出“江夏文”的轮廓,早已守候多时的武汉海事局
海巡31224号巡逻艇,开足马力迎上前去。31224号巡逻艇,此去是为“江夏文”号护航
的。
海巡31224号艇海事员胡裕说,每当有大吨位的货轮经过时,他们都会去护航,行
话叫“维护”。“江夏文”号,是迄今为止停靠武钢工业港码头的最大的“大块头”,
所以更加马虎不得。
3时21分,挂着万国旗的“江夏文”号拉响汽笛,缓缓驶向武钢工业港4号泊位。与
此同时,码头上响起阵阵鞭炮声。
3时26分,“江夏文”号庞大的锚链坠入江水中。
3时40分,“江夏文”号稳稳地停靠在4号泊位上。
此时,从宁波北仑港启航,到停靠武钢工业港,“诞生”仅17天的“江夏文”号,
满载1.2万吨矿粉,在经过95小时的跋涉之后,终于完成了它的“处女航”。
“江夏文”号从宁波北仑港出发,走海路到长江口。进入长江后共穿过了江阴大桥
、润扬大桥、南京长江大桥、二桥、三桥、四桥、芜湖大桥、铜陵大桥、安庆大桥、九
江大桥、黄石大桥、鄂州大桥、阳逻大桥等13座大桥,用了不到4天时间抵达武汉。 (
记者 左洋 李金友 万勤 通讯员 汪宗建 吴克进)
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资料记载,1931年,美国万吨级油轮“加利福尼亚”号自长江口上溯至武汉。
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1968年,南京长江大桥通车后,受净空限制、沿江的浅滩等不利因素影响,万吨轮
无法抵达武汉。
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万吨轮从宁波到武汉,必须穿越长江航段的13座长江大桥,其中阻碍最大的南京长
江大桥净空最低,仅有30.03米,在最高水位下,船舶允许通航高度仅为20.31米。
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受到长江水涨落、沿途浅险滩的影响,“江夏文”号每年只能5—9月份到武汉,其
他时间,在长江安徽芜湖段及以下航段营运。据了解,这5个月里,“江夏文”号万吨
轮每月来汉两次,为武钢送来大批优质进口铁矿粉。
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“江夏文”号船高30.47米,装满铁矿粉后,水面以上高23.33米,还有3.02米给卡
住了!
说明吃水约10米,这是2007年,三峡大坝修成是2003,南水北调还没大规模开始。
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最令人称奇的是船深有9.4米,近三层楼高,因此,舱容达14591立方米,
这次只装载了12060吨铁矿粉。
雷建国表示,船体采用扁平大肚外观,既多装铁矿石,也能减少船高,还能多“吃
”水,行驶更平稳。
当时不怕多吃水。
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万吨货轮抵达武汉 每年可节省省运费八千万元
CCTV.com 2007年09月21日 21:52 来源:武汉晚报
昨日(20日),武汉创新江海运输有限公司董事长、总经理袁厚安说,采用“江夏
文”号这样的万吨货轮,为武钢运输矿石,每吨矿石可降低运输成本20元。“江夏文”
号首航,共运来了1.2万吨矿粉,仅这一趟,就为武钢降低运输成本24万元。
1997年5月,“江夏”号江海货轮满载5000吨进口铁矿石由宁波港直航武钢,首开
海上进口矿石“江海直达”运输先河,也让进汉的大宗进口水运货物仅在宁波中转就可
。此举,使进口铁矿石每吨的进江费用大幅降低,运输时间由30天缩短到5天,还避免
了1.5%的中转损耗。
袁厚安介绍,随着货轮载重量从5000吨提升到1.2万吨,运量大幅增加,每年武钢
计划采用“江海直达”的方式运进矿石400万吨,降低运输成本约8000万元。
据预测,2010年全国将进口铁矿石2.5亿吨,其中长江沿线冶金企业进口量将达1
亿吨。如果长江沿线冶金行业进口的矿石有一半通过江海直达运输,就可节约运费数亿
元。
5000吨货轮引航 沿途海事部门护送
“船主”讲述穿大桥涉浅滩
昨日,记者在“江夏文”号船上看到“船主”――武汉创新江海运输有限公司的董
事长、总经理袁厚安,他用随身携带的照相机,记录着历程,向记者讲述这艘万吨轮行
进历程。
据了解,该船造价5000万元,袁厚安一直随船从宁波北仑港出发,到长江口行经了
136海里,从长江口再到武汉航行距离1100公里,经过江阴大桥、润扬大桥、南京长江
大桥、二桥、三桥、四桥、芜湖大桥、铜陵大桥、安庆大桥、九江大桥、黄石大桥、鄂
州大桥、阳逻大桥等13座大桥,经历6处浅滩,用了不到4天时间。
■5000吨船前方开道
武汉创新江海运输公司负责人表示,为了安全,船上派了安全总监全程监航,还提
前两天,从宁波北仑港出发一艘载重5000吨货船在前面测水位,随时通报相关数据,为
万吨轮开道探路。
■用竹竿测量大桥净高
据了解,南京长江大桥净空只有30.03米,被视为万吨货轮溯江而上驶入长江中游
的“咽喉”。
9月18日6时58分,万吨船穿过南京长江大桥,船员通过操纵降低桅杆高度4.68米,
使轮船水面以上的高度为18.65米,离桥还有2.3米净高,船员还用竹竿测量一下,然后
才放心通过。袁厚安说,放低桅杆是这艘货轮特意设计的。
■过浅险滩比走路还慢
“这趟水路,浅滩最浅的就在黄石,上午通过时,富裕水深1.5米。”袁厚安说,
位于长江黄石段的牯牛洲浅滩最险,货轮经过时,富裕水深最多只有1.6米,船过浅滩
时,只有先停船,利用余速缓行,然后再慢慢加速,以时速5公里左右的速度缓慢通过
,比平时走路还慢。
■只有19位船员驾驭
据悉,该船只有19名船员,只及普通机驳船队的三分之一,但效益却是几倍。
武汉“得水独厚” 将再迎3艘万吨轮
“近期,我们还将配备3艘1.2万吨级海轮运营宁波―武汉段。”昨日,武汉创新江
海运输公司负责人表示,每年5―9月,将大部分万吨货轮投入武汉水道,这与湖北省加
大航运投入有关。
湖北省交通厅规划,“十?一五”期间,湖北省将重点推进水运振兴工程,以武汉
港为核心,基本形成武汉航运中心。到2010年,中西部水运强省将初具雏形。
据了解,湖北省具有“得天独厚、得水独厚”的水运优势,长江、汉江黄金水道贯
穿全省,全省通航河流229条,通航里程8385公里,居全国第六位。国家规划的长江11
个内河主要港口,就有武汉等4个主要港口。我省90%的煤炭、85%以上的石油、96%
以上的电煤等大宗货物可以通过水上运输,95%的外贸集装箱经由水路中转。
湖北省交通厅厅长林志慧表示,将确定每年安排1亿元支持水运发展的财政专项资
金,武汉将按不超过项目总投资的15%给予定额投资,对入籍的新建造船舶――江海直
达船舶每载重吨补助20元优惠政策等等。以武汉航运中心为龙头的“四主十九重”港口
建设顺利实施,湖北水运已经进入了一个前所未有的黄金发展机遇期。 (文/记者 左洋
李金友 万勤 通讯员 汪宗建 吴克进)
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据了解,南京长江大桥净空只有30.03米,被视为万吨货轮溯江而上驶入长江中游
的“咽喉”。
9月18日6时58分,万吨船穿过南京长江大桥,船员通过操纵降低桅杆高度4.68米,
使轮船水面以上的高度为18.65米,离桥还有2.3米净高,船员还用竹竿测量一下,然后
才放心通过。袁厚安说,放低桅杆是这艘货轮特意设计的。
相关主题
中铁大桥局承建的武汉第八座长江大桥开工中国的水路客运为什么那么弱?
京沪高铁“第一桥”大胜关长江大桥通车武汉长江大桥迎55岁生日 被撞70余次仍然无恙
老毛还是湖南人的血性南京长江大桥威武
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那是趁当年发大洪水时进去的。武汉水位最高是28.28
1931是百年水平的大洪水。水位最高是28.28
1954年更大,时间非常长,最高29.73。武汉有个纪念碑。你应该知道1954年吧?
然后是1958年,也超过了29米。
再一次超过29米是九十年代吧?
过去四年里有两年也发生了不小的洪水。

【在 n*****8 的大作中提到】
: 资料记载,1931年,美国万吨级油轮“加利福尼亚”号自长江口上溯至武汉。
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“这趟水路,浅滩最浅的就在黄石,上午通过时,富裕水深1.5米。”袁厚安说,
位于长江黄石段的牯牛洲浅滩最险,货轮经过时,富裕水深最多只有1.6米
整个航道最浅处10-12米水深。
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他们是五毛,带任务的,记住id就行了。

【在 M******a 的大作中提到】
: 小将从来不要脸,被事实反复抽嘴巴,就是痴心不改。
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不读、不愿意读、读不懂、还是读了当成没读?
https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E9%95%BF%E6%B1%9F
“由于受航道水深和长江大桥净空高度等条件的限制,历史上,只有芜湖以下航道可全
年通航海轮,2.5万吨级海轮必须乘潮才能抵达南京,南京至武汉最大只能通航5000吨
级海轮。经过对长江干流航道进行大规模维护,2011年太仓至长江口建成12.5米深水航
道,5万吨级海轮可满载双向通航,10万吨级满载货船可乘潮抵达[21]。南京至太仓建
成10.8米深水航道,3万吨级海轮可以满载直达南京,12.5米深水航道将于2015年上延
至南京,届时5万吨级海轮可直达南京港,10万吨级满载散货船可乘潮通过。南京至芜
湖段2011年建成丰水期(6—9月)10.5米水深航道,可通航3万吨级海轮,其他月份航
道水深7.5米,可通航1万吨级海轮[22]。安庆至芜湖段2013年航道维护水深提高至枯水
期6米、洪水期8米,可常年通航1万吨级海轮[23]。荆江航道条件较差,安庆至武汉枯
水期航道水深4.5米,4月至11月可通航5000吨级以下海轮,航道水深5米至7米[24][25]
。城陵矶至武汉江段每年5—9月可通行海轮,航道水深在5米以上[26]。目前,长江海
轮航线由武汉向上游延伸228公里直达城陵矶。”
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武汉晚报(记者 左洋 李金友 万勤) 昨日下午3时40分,满载12060吨矿石的万吨货轮
——“江夏文”号驶入武钢工业港码头。这是万吨轮首次驶入武汉。
点击查看高清原图
图/ 记者 胡伟鸣 蔡晓智
以往,受南京长江大桥净空过低影响,长江武汉段无法行驶万吨轮,只能行驶多节
拖带低矮集装箱体的万吨船队,“江夏文”号自降桅杆穿过南京长江大桥,是进入武汉
的第一艘万吨级单体货轮。9月16日,“江夏文”号从宁波港起航,一路穿越13座大桥
,闯过6处浅险滩。
拖驳子小时候经常看到。
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全国政协委员、长江航务管理局原局长金义华举例,1931年,美国万吨级“加利福尼亚
”邮轮曾自长江口直达武汉。但自南京长江大桥建成后,因其净空高度仅有24米,如同
一座铁锁,把大船挡在桥下,丰水期仅能通过3000吨级船舶,万吨级外轮根本不可能通
过,限制了长江作用的发挥。
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金义华在自己的提案中建议,“对南京长江大桥进行改造:一是加高桥墩,抬高桥梁;
二是改造大桥,使其中一个桥孔提升为活动桥;三是变公铁两用为公路专用桥,下层铁
路桥的净空便利航运。改造方案是否可行,须进行科学论证、评估。”
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5月初,一位不愿具名的桥梁专家在接受媒体采访时提出“与其花数十亿改建,不如干
脆炸掉南京长江大桥,彻底疏通长江黄金水道,带来的经济效益不到十年就能超过上千
亿。”
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炸还是不炸?网友们迅速分化成两派,一派支持黄奇帆的炸桥说,认为南京长江大桥阻
碍了长江中上游口岸城市的发展,因为“万吨巨轮无法驶入”。

他们“最有力”的证据,则是全国政协委员、交通部长江航务管理局局长金义华发
表的一席议论。

金义华认为,桥梁净高不够“腰斩”了长江:1931年,美国万吨级“加利福尼亚”
邮轮曾自长江口直达武汉。但20世纪60年代建造的南京长江大桥净空高度仅有24米,如
同一座千年铁锁,把大船挡在桥下,丰水期仅能通过3000吨级船舶,万吨级外轮根本不
可能通过,限制了长江作用的发挥。

这位权威人物列出的数据说,2001年进入长江的国际航行船舶超过1万艘次,但99
%的船舶均在南京以下港口。
n*****8
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大桥“锁住”长江 黄金水道苦痛
2007-01-30 本报记者:文贻炜 王圣志 杨希伟 来源:经济参考报
一桥飞架南北,天堑变通途。自新中国成立以来,不断增加的长江大桥,成为沿江
各地经济进步的标志。然而,由于受历史条件的局限,一些长江大桥在当初设计时,桥
高、桥宽、选址未充分考虑到未来的航运需要。而今,“桥锁长江”,已成为黄金水道
发展之痛。
“限高”的黄金水道
九江长江大桥是我国铁路南北通道京九线和公路干线105国道上的重要桥梁,也是
我国目前跨越长江规模最大的公路、铁路两用桥梁。新华社记者 章武 摄
南京长江大桥。经济参考报资料照片
长江航运,横贯东西,通江达海。长江沿江七省二市资源丰富、产业密集,集聚了
我国41%以上的经济总量。由于长江水运具有“绿色”、“低耗能”优势,其在未来经
济发展中将扮演越来越重要的角色。
1931年,美国万吨级“加利福尼亚”油轮曾自长江口直达武汉。然而,今天因为跨
江桥梁的存在,这一景象只能成为书本上的记忆。
交通部长江航道局航道行政管理处处长薛俊说,长江干流上影响航运最典型、最突
出的就是南京长江大桥。20世纪60年代建造的南京长江大桥,净空高度仅有24米,如同
一座铁锁,把大船挡在桥下,丰水期仅能通过3000吨级船舶,万吨级外轮根本不可能通
过。后来新建的芜湖、铜陵、安庆等长江大桥的净高,也“将错就错”地比照南京长江
大桥的净空高度建设,致使南京至铜陵213公里可供万吨级海轮通航的深水航道未得到
充分利用。
据有关部门统计,2001年进入长江的国际航行船舶虽然超过一万艘次,但99%的船
舶均在南京以下港口。交通部长江航务管理局局长金义华说,自20世纪80年代以来,国
家先后投资数十亿元在芜湖、安庆、九江、黄石、武汉、城陵矶、重庆等港口建成的数
十座5000吨级外贸码头和集装箱码头,很少有大型外轮靠泊。
一桥之隔,阻断的是千百年来“流金淌银”的长江水运。当前,长江大桥的数量仍
在发展。截至目前,长江宜宾至上海段已建成通车的桥梁有39座,在建11座,近期拟开
工建设17座。在未来10年,长江大桥将突破100座,2020年将达到124座。
净宽不足船舶频频撞桥
桥梁净宽不足同样严重碍航。薛俊告诉记者,芜湖长江大桥主跨径仅312米,通航
净宽不到300米,按照内河通航标准要求,此桥净高为24米,净宽至少要达到400米以上
才能满足通航要求。此处运输繁忙,航行船舶密度大、船型大、吃水深,300米的净宽
显然难以满足船舶双向通行。
净宽不足,表现出桥墩过多过密。来自港监部门的资料显示,武汉长江大桥建成使
用至今近50年,由于水下八个桥墩总宽近百米,不仅挤占了本来就狭窄的大桥水域,而
且对水流产生巨大阻力,先后被过往的船舶撞击70多次。
桥墩过密导致泥沙沉积,阻碍航道。武汉长江大桥建成后,自上世纪60年代起泥沙
就开始在汉阳桥头上方沉积,2001年3月,该沙滩面积已达九万平方米,不仅使大桥航
道只有80米宽,而且航道水深也不足3.2米的最低极限。为了确保船舶的正常通航,航
道部门不得不采取疏滩挖泥和实施主航道改(桥)孔的办法引船过桥。
在长江上游,由于桥梁净宽不足产生的矛盾更为突出。金义华说,三峡水库蓄水后
,由于库区水位普遍上涨,原来建在库区里的跨江大桥桥墩多被江水包围,对库区船舶
航行形成新的障碍。目前长江从巫山至江津600公里的库区,已建、在建和拟建的桥梁
达30座。随着库区水位的提升,这些桥梁均不同程度地对船舶构成威胁,待三峡大坝水
位达到175米时,桥梁对船舶航行的影响将更大。
桥梁选址错误隐患重重
按《内河通航标准》等国家技术规范,水上桥梁应建在河床稳定、航道水深充裕和
水流条件良好的平顺河段,运离易变的洲滩。
金义华说,长江上修建的黄石、荆州、白沙洲等大桥因在选址时没有听取航道管理
部门的意见,将大桥建在弯曲河道或冲淤变化剧烈的滩险河段上,给桥梁和航轮的安全
造成严重威胁。
20世纪90年代初,黄石大桥在进行大桥桥址的可行性研究时,建桥业主未采纳航道
部门的意见,把桥建在水运繁忙航段的弯曲河段上,仅该桥在施工期内就发生了20多起
船舶碰撞桥墩事故,沉船九起,直接经济损失数百万元。
1999年开工兴建的荆州长江大桥,桥区航道位于长江荆州市弯道处,江中又有三八
滩将河道分成南北两汊,加上两汊兴衰交替,主航道时左时右,且每汊中的主航道亦不
稳定,滩漕变化情况十分复杂。鉴于此,该桥在选址时,长江航道部门曾多次提出将桥
址下移至观音寺航行条件较好的河段,但因种种原因有关部门最后还是坚持了原选定的
桥址。
武汉白沙洲长江大桥,在建桥方召开设计选址论证会时,航道部门的专家根据航道
的变迁,提出了有关保证长江枯水期有足够的航道宽度和水深以利通航的具体意见,但
没有被采纳。1999年,该桥施工时,由于一孔主桥墩在南槽主航道中间,使本不够宽敞
的航道变得更为狭窄。曾有一段时间,长航集团南京长江油运公司的八个原油船队因为
此处航道问题而滞留武汉,经济损失惨重。
破解碍航难题需要科学决策
有关专家指出,目前长江的水量是欧洲第一大河莱茵河的六倍,但运输量却仅为莱
茵河的1/6。长江上每建一座桥,实际上就增加了一座碍航设施。由于桥梁问题,万吨
轮船很难向南京上游通航。
长江大桥使南京为之“偷笑”。一些专家认为,大型船舶没法通过大桥开往中上游
,令南京港的吞吐量大增,这对上游地区有失公平。对于南京长江大桥保存与否的问题
,近年已多次在上游与下游地区之间引发争议。
有专家建议,以不到1000万元的炸除清理方案换来上千亿元的黄金水道收益,这一
买卖并不吃亏,毕竟桥梁已经老化,国家应考虑出面进行协调。这是一个两难选择。一
方面,南京长江大桥也算是中国的文化遗产;另一方面,南京大桥的确阻碍了长江上游
的发展,生产要素既无法向上聚集,上游的工业制成品又无法本地出口。
破解碍航难题需要科学决策,对于未来发展,航运专家建议:
多修隧道少建桥。跨江建筑的数量应尽量减少,根据长江的地理、地形、气象及环
境特点,本着“宜桥则桥,宜隧则隧”的原则,尽可能建设水底隧道。一些国家为了满
足海轮进内河和战备的需要,在法律上规定不准兴建桥梁,只能建隧道。
对航碍大桥进行改造。以南京长江大桥改造为例,有关专家提出:一是加高桥墩,
抬高桥梁;二是改造大桥,使其中一个桥孔提升为活动桥;三是变公铁两用为公路专用
桥,下层铁路桥的净空以利航运;四是维持大桥现状,另在桥下建船闸。这几种改造方
案是否可行,还须进行科学论证、评估。
新建长江大桥应严格论证。今后在长江上建桥梁,应经过航运部门论证,其净高净
宽应严格按照国家有关通航标准,满足航运发展需求。
薛俊说,消除“桥患”,重振水道,考验的是决策者们的智慧。
相关主题
2020年实现长江航运现代化据说李鹏一次讲话说“中台 两国 人民”
南京长江大桥的5000吨轮船限制老不死的武汉南京长江大桥让谁窝心 zt
南京车祸通天背景:看看许世友当年是怎么试车的武汉长江大桥和南京长江大桥都是老毛时代的作品
n*****8
发帖数: 1
61
1931年,美国万吨级“加利福尼亚”油轮曾自长江口直达武汉。然而,今天因为跨
江桥梁的存在,这一景象只能成为书本上的记忆。
v*****1
发帖数: 2200
62
长江水再深,也不如阶级专政水深

:长江各河段的水深是多少?
M******a
发帖数: 6723
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南京长江大桥通车于1969年,单凭这一条也该炸。
w********9
发帖数: 8613
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http://www.mitbbs.com/mitbbs_article_t.php?board=Military&gid=52573447&ftype=0
加新了
尤其提到了发展航行最严重的一个问题:航道普遍浅,并且有不少中下游较发达地区重
要瓶颈航道区域
n*****8
发帖数: 1
65
On 28 January 1930, Hermes transported the British Minister to China, Sir
Miles Lampson, to Nanking for talks with the Chinese Government over the
Japanese invasion of Manchuria and she remained there until she sailed
downriver to Shanghai on 2 March. By the end of the month, the carrier was
back in Hong Kong and remained there until June when she returned to Wei Hai
Wei for her annual summer visit. The ship briefly returned to Hong Kong
before departing for Great Britain on 7 August. Hermes reached Portsmouth on
23 September, but only remained there for six days before transferring to
Sheerness. Captain E. J. G. MacKinnon relieved Captain Campbell there on 2
October. She was given a brief refit at Chatham Dockyard before sailing for
the China Station. The ship had aboard only 403 and 440 Flights on this
deployment and transported six Blackburn Ripons to deliver to Malta and HMS
Eagle. Hermes departed Portsmouth on 12 November and reached Hong Kong on 2
January 1931. En route to her summer refuge at Wei Hai Wei, the ship
received a report on 9 June that the submarine Poseidon had been sunk there
while on exercise. Captain MacKinnon took command of the rescue effort when
Hermes arrived at the accident site an hour afterwards. Eight of the
submarine's crewmen managed to escape through the forward torpedo hatch, but
only six of those reached the surface where they were picked up and treated
in Hermes's sickbay; two of those six subsequently died.[26]
Hermes in 1938
The ship remained at Wei Hai Wei until the end of August when she sailed up
the Yangtze River for Hankow. She reached the inland port on 5 September and
dispatched armed guards to put down unrest on several British-owned
merchant ships. Her primary purpose, though, was to aid the Chinese
government's survey of the massive flooding in the area. Charles Lindbergh
and his wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh, were also in the city to survey the
flooding with their Lockheed Sirius float-plane and they were invited to use
the carrier as their base. Unfortunately, their aircraft was flipped on the
morning of 2 October by a strong current as it was being hoisted back into
the water by Hermes's crane. They were quickly rescued by a boat from the
carrier, but their aircraft was damaged. Captain MacKinnon offered to take
them and their aircraft to Shanghai where it could be repaired and the ship
departed the next day. She remained in Shanghai until 2 November, when she
sailed for Hong Kong. Hermes received a distress message on 3 November from
a Japanese merchantman, SS Ryinjin Maru, that had run aground on the Tan
Rocks near the Chinese mainland at the mouth of the Taiwan Strait. The ship
managed to rescue nine crew members before she was relieved by the Japanese
destroyer Nashi and could proceed to Hong Kong. She reached the city on 7
November and remained in the area until April 1932.[27]
n*****8
发帖数: 1
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The ship remained at Wei Hai Wei until the end of August when she sailed up
the Yangtze River for Hankow. She reached the inland port on 5 September and
dispatched armed guards to put down unrest on several British-owned
merchant ships.
n*****8
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Hermes had an overall length of 600 feet (182.9 m), a beam of 70 feet 3
inches (21.4 m), and a draught of 23 feet 3 inches (7.1 m) at deep load. She
displaced 10,850 long tons (11,020 t) at standard load.[8] Each of the ship
's two sets of Parsons geared steam turbines drove one propeller shaft at a
speed of 25 knots (46 km/h; 29 mph).[5] Steam was supplied by six Yarrow
boilers[9] operating at a pressure of 235 psi (1,620 kPa; 17 kgf/cm2).[5]
The turbines were designed for a total of 40,000 shaft horsepower (30,000 kW
), but they produced 41,318 shaft horsepower (30,811 kW) during her sea
trials, and gave Hermes a speed of 26.178 knots (48.482 km/h; 30.125 mph).
The ship carried 2,000 long tons (2,000 t) of fuel oil which gave her a
range of 4,480 nautical miles (8,300 km; 5,160 mi) at 16 knots (30 km/h; 18
mph).[10]
The ship's flight deck was 570 feet (173.7 m) long and her lifts' dimensions
were 36 by 36.6 feet (11.0 by 11.2 m).[11] Her hangar was 400 feet (121.9 m
) long, 50 feet (15.2 m) wide and 16 feet (4.9 m) high. Hermes was fitted
with longitudinal arresting gear.[5] A large crane was positioned behind the
island. Because of her size, the ship was only able to carry about 20
aircraft. Bulk petrol storage consisted of 7,000 imperial gallons (32,000 l;
8,400 US gal). The ship's crew totalled 33 officers and 533 men, exclusive
of the air group, in 1939.[12]
For self-defence against enemy warships, Hermes had six BL 5.5-inch Mk I
guns, three on each side of the ship. All four of her QF Mk V 4-inch anti-
aircraft guns were positioned on the flight deck. The ship's waterline belt
armour was 3 inches (76 mm) thick[9] and her flight deck, which was also the
ship's strength deck,[13] was 1 inch (25 mm) thick.[9] Hermes had a
metacentric height of 2.9 feet (0.9 m) and handled well in heavy weather.
However, she had quite a large surface area exposed to the wind and required
as much as 25 to 30 degrees of weather helm at low speed when the wind was
blowing from the side.[14]
n*****8
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1931年,英国万吨航母到过汉口,当时的汉口港太牛了。
n*****8
发帖数: 1
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航母那么高的舰桥,1968年后涨水期肯定是进不了长江了。
n*****8
发帖数: 1
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HMS Hermes Operational Timeline
11 Sep 1919 Hermes was launched at Walker, Newcastle upon Tyne, England,
United Kingdom, sponsored by Mrs. A. Cooper, daughter of the First Lord of
the Admiralty, Walter Long.
19 Feb 1924 HMS Hermes was commissioned into service. Captain Arthur
Stopford, who had been the commanding officer of the carrier since Feb 1923,
remained in command.
26 Jul 1924 HMS Hermes participated in a fleet review in Spithead in
Hampshire, England, United Kingdom.
22 Nov 1924 HMS Hermes arrived at Malta.
27 Mar 1925 HMS Hermes began a seven-week period of refit in Malta.
28 May 1925 HMS Hermes arrived at Portsmouth, England, United Kingdom.
17 Jun 1925 HMS Hermes departed Portsmouth, England, United Kingdom.
10 Aug 1925 HMS Hermes arrived at Hong Kong.
14 Aug 1926 Captain R. Elliot was named the commanding officer of HMS
Hermes, replacing Captain C. P. Talbot.
11 Oct 1926 HMS Hermes arrived at Hong Kong.
27 Jul 1927 HMS Hermes arrived at Weihai, Shandong Province, China, a
British leased territory.
26 Oct 1927 HMS Hermes arrived in Britain.
2 Dec 1927 Captain G. Hopwood was named the commanding officer of HMS
Hermes, replacing Captain R. Elliot.
21 Jan 1928 HMS Hermes departed Britain.
18 Mar 1928 HMS Hermes arrived at Hong Kong.
28 Mar 1929 Captain J. D. Campbell was named the commanding officer of
HMS Hermes, replacing Captain G. Hopwood.
29 Oct 1929 HMS Hermes arrived in Hong Kong.
28 Jan 1930 HMS Hermes arrived in Nanjing, China with the British
Minister to China, Sir Miles Lampson, aboard.
2 Mar 1930 HMS Hermes departed Nanjing, China for Shanghai, China.
7 Aug 1930 HMS Hermes departed Hong Kong.
23 Sep 1930 HMS Hermes arrived at Portsmouth, England, United Kingdom.
29 Sep 1930 HMS Hermes departed Portsmouth, England, United Kingdom for
Sheerness in Kent, England, United Kingdom.
2 Oct 1930 Captain E. J. G. MacKinnon was named the commanding officer
of HMS Hermes, replacing Captain J. D. Campbell.
12 Nov 1930 HMS Hermes departed Portsmouth, England, United Kingdom.
2 Jan 1931 HMS Hermes arrived at Hong Kong.
9 Jun 1931 HMS Hermes participated in the rescue of survivors of HMS
Poseidon in the Yellow Sea north of Shandong Province, China; the submarine
had collided with Chinese merchant vessel Yuta while on exercise.
5 Sep 1931 HMS Hermes arrived at Hankou, Hubei Province, China.
2 Oct 1931 Charles Lindbergh's Lockheed Sirius floatplane was flipped by
strong current at Hankou, Hubei Province, China a it was being hoisted off
of HMS Hermes. A boat from the carrier rescued Lindbergh and his wife.
2 Nov 1931 HMS Hermes departed Shanghai, China.
3 Nov 1931 HMS Hermes rescued 9 crewmen of Japanese merchant vessel
Ryinjin Maru, which had run aground on the Tan Rocks on the coast of the
Taiwan Strait.
7 Nov 1931 HMS Hermes arrived at Hong Kong.
25 Feb 1932 Captain W. B. Mackenzie was named the commanding officer of
HMS Hermes while the ship was at Hong Kong, relieving Captain E. J. G.
MacKinnon.
17 Sep 1932 HMS Hermes departed Weihai, Shandong Province, China, a
British leased territory for Nagasaki, Japan.
28 Oct 1932 HMS Hermes arrived at Hong Kong.
22 Jul 1933 HMS Hermes arrived at Sheerness in Kent, England, United
Kingdom.
15 Aug 1934 Captain G. Fraser was named the commanding officer of HMS
Hermes, relieving Captain W. B. Mackenzie.
18 Nov 1934 HMS Hermes departed Portsmouth, England, United Kingdom.
4 Jan 1935 HMS Hermes arrived at Hong Kong.
12 Sep 1935 HMS Hermes departed Weihai, Shandong Province, China, a
British leased territory.
19 Sep 1935 HMS Hermes arrived at Singapore.
21 Apr 1936 HMS Hermes began a tour of Japan.
17 Mar 1937 HMS Hermes departed Singapore.
3 May 1937 HMS Hermes arrived at Plymouth, England, United Kingdom.
20 May 1937 HMS Hermes participated at the Coronation Fleet Review at
Spithead in Hampshire, England, United Kingdom.
16 Jul 1938 HMS Hermes was transferred from the Reserve Fleet for
training duties at Devonport, England, United Kingdom.
23 Aug 1939 Captain F. E. P. Hutton was named the commanding officer of
HMS Hermes, relieving Captain G. Fraser.
24 Aug 1939 HMS Hermes was recommissioned into service.
1 Sep 1939 12 Swordfish torpedo bombers of 814 Naval Air Squadron landed
aboard HMS Hermes to join her air crew.
18 Sep 1939 Aircraft from HMS Hermes located a German submarine escorted
by destroyers Isis and Imogen; the subsequent attack was ineffective.
7 Oct 1939 HMS Hermes made rendezvous with French battleship Strasbourg
in the Atlantic Ocean.
16 Oct 1939 HMS Hermes arrived at Dakar, French West Africa.
25 Oct 1939 HMS Hermes departed Dakar, French West Africa as a part of
Force X patrolling Atlantic waters for German raiders.
9 Jan 1940 HMS Hermes began a period of refitting in Britain.
10 Feb 1940 HMS Hermes completed a period of refitting in Britain.
25 May 1940 Captain Richard F. J. Onslow was named the commanding
officer of HMS Hermes, relieving Captain F. E. P. Hutton.
29 Jun 1940 HMS Hermes received orders to set sail toward Dakar, French
West Africa.
7 Jul 1940 After dark, a boat from HMS Hermes attempted to drop depth
charges underneath French battleship Richelieu in Dakar, French West Africa;
the attack was not successful.
10 Jul 1940 HMS Hermes collided with armed merchant cruiser HMS Corfu in
the Atlantic Ocean in poor weather, injuring two and killing one aboard HMS
Hermes.
5 Aug 1940 HMS Hermes joined a South Africa-bound convoy in the South
Atlantic.
17 Aug 1940 HMS Hermes began receiving repairs at Simon's Town, South
Africa for damage caused by the 10 Jul 1940 collision with armed merchant
cruiser HMS Corfu.
2 Nov 1940 HMS Hermes completed her repairs at Simon's Town, South
Africa.
29 Nov 1940 HMS Hermes arrived at Freetown, South Africa.
2 Dec 1940 HMS Hermes made rendezvous with light cruiser HMS Dragon in
the South Atlantic.
31 Dec 1940 HMS Hermes set sail for Simon's Town, South Africa.
26 Jan 1941 HMS Hermes detected a French blockade runner in the Indian
Ocean south of South Africa, but lost the ship in the pursuit.
4 Feb 1941 HMS Hermes set sail toward Kismayo, Somaliland, Italian East
Africa.
12 Feb 1941 HMS Hermes captured an Italian merchant ship off Italian
East Africa.
22 Feb 1941 HMS Hermes was ordered to search for German cruiser Admiral
Scheer in the Indian Ocean; the search did not yield any results.
4 Mar 1941 HMS Hermes arrived at Colombo, Ceylon.
19 Nov 1941 HMS Hermes arrived at Simon's Town, South Africa for a refit.
31 Jan 1942 HMS Hermes completed her refit at Simon's Town, South Africa.
14 Feb 1942 HMS Hermes arrived at Colombo, Ceylon.
19 Feb 1942 HMS Hermes departed Colombo, Ceylon to receive Swordfish
torpedo bombers of 814 Naval Air Squadron in the Indian Ocean.
25 Feb 1942 HMS Hermes arrived at Trincomalee, Ceylon and disembarked
Swordfish torpedo bombers of 814 Naval Air Squadron.
9 Apr 1942 Japanese carrier aircraft attacked the harbor at Trincomalee,
Ceylon at 0700 hours. Two hours later, empty British aircraft carrier HMS
Hermes and Australian destroyer HMAS Vampire were detected 90 miles further
south. At 1035 hours, Japanese carrier aircraft attacked and sank HMS Hermes
(307 killed) and HMAS Vampire (9 killed); hospital ship Vita rescued
survivors from both warships. At 1207 hours, 20 Japanese carrier dive
bombers sank British oiler Athelstane (all aboard survived) and British
corvette HMS Hollyhock (48 were killed, 17 survived) in the Indian Ocean.
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South Dakota I (Armored Cruiser No. 9)
1902-1930
North Dakota and South Dakota both attained their admittance to the Union on
2 November 1889. South Dakota yielded the state’s place to North Dakota
because of its position in alphabetical order, and South Dakota entered the
Union as the 40th state.
(Armored Cruiser No. 9: displacement 13,680; length 503'; beam 69'7"; draft
26'1"; speed 22 knots; complement 829; armament 4 8-inch, 14 6-inch, 18 3-
inch, 12 3-pounders, 2 18-inch torpedo tubes (submerged); class Pennsylvania)
The first South Dakota (Armored Cruiser No. 9) was laid down on 30 September
1902 at the Union Iron Works, San Francisco, Calif.; sponsored by Grace
Harreid, the daughter of Gov. Charles M. Herreid of South Dakota and the
wife of Dean Lightner; was launched on 21 July 1904; and commissioned on 27
January 1908, Capt. James T. Smith in command.
An act of Congress authorized South Dakota on 7 June 1900. The ship’s hull
and machinery cost a contract total of $3,750,000. Her plant consisted of
vertical triple expansion engines and 16 Babcock and Wilcox boilers, which
powered two propellers. Four funnels, one cage mast, and one military mast
provided a distinctive silhouette. One Type J submarine signal receiving set
equipped the ship. Capt. Charles E. Fox reported on board as the ship’s
General Inspector on 30 August 1907. The cruiser completed her preliminary
acceptance on 19 November.
NH 99357
South Dakota (Armored Cruiser No. 9) moors outboard of Milwaukee (Cruiser No
. 21, left) at Mare Island Navy Yard, Calif., late 1907. The ship in the
stream is probably California (Armored Cruiser No. 6). (U.S. Navy Photograph
NH 99357, Naval History & Heritage Command)
South Dakota began her shakedown on 3 March 1908. The ship sailed from San
Francisco to Mexican waters, carrying out trials in Magdalena Bay from 8 to
10 March, and on 11 and 12 March off Isla Cedros, the ship reported her
movements off the Anglicized spelling of Cerros Island, contributing to
debate among international navigators concerning the designation of the
island. She came about and visited San Diego, Calif. (13–24 March). South
Dakota then made a brief voyage northward along the Californian coast and
put into San Pedro through the end of the month, followed by a visit to Long
Beach (1–5 April), returning to San Pedro on 5 and 6 April. On 8 and 9
April, the cruiser lay off the Mare Island Light, and then visited San
Francisco. South Dakota attained a speed of 22.24 knots during her sea
trials.
She then made for the Pacific Northwest to accomplish work associated with
her shakedown, reaching Port Angeles, Wash., on 12 April 1908, and (13–23
April) entering drydock at Puget Sound Navy Yard, Bremerton, Wash. South
Dakota floated from the drydock and then anchored off Anacortes, Wash., from
23 to 25 April. Assigned to the Armored Cruiser Squadron, Pacific Fleet,
South Dakota visited Seattle, Wash. (25–27 April). The ship returned to
Puget Sound to participate in a reception for the Atlantic Fleet through 1
May. Following the reception, the cruiser completed her final acceptance
trials off San Francisco through the end of May. South Dakota cruised off
the west coast of the United States into August. She departed San Francisco
in company with Tennessee (Armored Cruiser No. 10) on 24 August, arriving on
23 September at Pago Pago, Samoa.
South Dakota sailed easterly courses to operate in Central and South
American waters in September. The ship came about to the westward to serve
with the Armored Cruiser Squadron in the autumn of 1909. The ships of that
squadron called at ports in the Admiralty Islands, Philippines, Japan, and
China, before South Dakota returned to Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands, on 31
January 1910.
Nicaraguan Gen. Juan J. Estrada launched a rebellion against the country’s
president, José S. Zelaya, in October 1909. Both men proclaimed liberal
policies, but Zelaya repeatedly criticized the U.S. and openly embraced ties
with the Germans and Japanese. The relations between Washington and Managua
consequently deteriorated. Estrada rebelled in Bluefields, a gold mining
and banana and rubber plantation town on the Mosquito Coast that contained
large numbers of foreigners including Americans. Zelaya’s troops captured
and executed a pair of American mercenaries who fought for the rebels. The
murder of the two men, combined with the threat against Bluefields,
compelled President William H. Taft to sever diplomatic relations with
Zelaya. The Nicaraguan president resigned on 17 December 1909, and José
Madriz, Zelaya’s protégé, assumed the post, but continued to fight the
rebels.
The government employed an armed steamship to blockade the rebels at
Bluefields. Estrada implored U.S. assistance, and Sailors and Marines landed
from Dubuque (Gunboat No. 17) and Paducah (Gunboat No. 18) on 19 May 1910.
The men established neutral zones to protect Americans trapped by the
fighting and to restore order. The gunboats alternated between thwarting the
steamer from shelling or blockading the rebels, and transporting
Leathernecks from Panama to Bluefields. The Marines remained ashore until 4
September. A conservative mining executive named Adolfo Díaz replaced
Zelaya and arranged favorable terms with the U.S.
South Dakota and Tennessee sailed with a Special Service Squadron off the
Atlantic coast of South America in February 1910. South Dakota took part in
the Argentine Centennial. The ship returned to the Pacific late in the year,
and then steamed in Mexican waters.
Following South Dakota’s departure, Tacoma (Cruiser No. 18) prevented
converted yacht Hornet from participating in a revolution in Honduras in
January 1911. The fighting continued, and Tacoma landed Bluejackets and
Marines to protect Americans at Puerto Cortez on 1 February. The
intervention defused the crisis, and the Honduran opponents met on board the
cruiser and signed a peace treaty establishing a provisional government
later that month.
South Dakota carried out drills with the Pacific Torpedo Fleet. Capt. Frank
M. Bennett assumed command during this period. The ship completed repairs at
Mare Island Navy Yard at Vallejo, Calif. (1 July to 30 September 1911). She
coaled off the Mare Island Light through 3 October, and then sailed for San
Pedro, reaching that port on 5 October. Through 9 October, South Dakota
hove to off Santa Monica, Calif., and then returned to the Bay Area (10–16
October), taking part in ceremonies marking a visit to San Francisco by
President Taft. The ship returned to southern Californian waters through
Thanksgiving, alternatively carrying out gunnery practice and drills off
Coronado, San Diego, Long Beach, and San Pedro, and visiting those ports for
brief periods of liberty. In addition, she took part in a review of the
Pacific Fleet (1–4 November), and coaled on 14 and 15 November in
preparation for a cruise to the Orient.
South Dakota sailed with the Armored Cruiser Squadron from San Francisco to
the Hawaiian Islands on 28 November 1911. The ship hove to off Honolulu,
Oahu (3 and 4 December), coaled on 4 and 5 December, and sailed off Honolulu
with the Pacific Fleet through 12 December. A port call at Hilo, Hawaii,
provided crewmen the unique opportunity to visit a volcano (13–17 December)
. South Dakota spent the remainder of the year anchored off Honolulu.
NH 50361
A boat from South Dakota pays a call to Maryland (Armored Cruiser No. 8) off
Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands, on 1 January 1912. The boat appears to be
rigged as a brigantine, probably for decoration. Ships customarily exchange
visits in the same harbor on New Year’s Day. (U.S. Navy Photograph NH 50361
, Naval History & Heritage Command)
The ship coaled off Honolulu (13–29 January 1912), and held an admiral’s
inspection (29 January–1 February). South Dakota maneuvered with the
Pacific Fleet (5–8 February) and through 12 February coaled off Honolulu.
South Dakota sailed in company with California (Armored Cruiser No. 6) and
Colorado (Armored Cruiser No. 7) to Lahaina Roads off Maui, Territory of
Hawaii, on 12 and 13 February, and on 13 and 14 February hove to off
Kealakekua on the main island of Hawaii. The ships then rounded the island
to Hilo, where shore parties again visited a volcano (15–18 February).
South Dakota returned to Honolulu and coaled (20 February–4 March). Through
16 March, the ship maneuvered with the Pacific Fleet, and then coaled and
took on stores in preparation for continuing her cruise to the Far East.
South Dakota steamed from Hawaiian waters to Apra, Guam in the Ladrone
Islands (Marianas) from 18 March to 2 April 1912. The ship steered westerly
courses and reached Olongapo at Subic Bay, Luzon, Philippines, on 8 and 9
April. Filipino insurrectos (insurgents) continued to resist U.S. attempts
to crush their insurrection, the predominantly Moslem and fiercely
independent Moros of the south proving especially truculent. Pampanga (
Gunboat No. 39) hove to off the island of Semut near Basilan on 24 September
1911. A landing party captured Mundang, and five Sailors subsequently
received the Medal of Honor for their bravery while fighting their way
through the hotly contested village.
South Dakota thus arrived in the area at a turbulent time, and she patrolled
Philippine waters with the Armored Cruiser Squadron. The ship coaled at
Cavite Island in Manila Bay, Luzon, on 9 and 10 April, from 11 to 13 April
carried out a torpedo defense drill in the bay, and entered drydock for
repairs at Olongapo (13 April–2 May). She coaled at Cavite from 2 to 4 May,
and during the following two weeks, alternatively conducted runs
preliminary to target practice and liberty calls to Manila. South Dakota
held battle, division, and torpedo defense practice at Olongapo (17–24 May)
, and on 24 and 25 May carried out night experimental practice at Cavite.
The ship set liberty routine through the first week of June, broken only on
31 May by a preliminary speed trial. She conducted an endurance trial on 4
and 5 June, and through 21 June completed repairs at Olongapo. The cruiser
then returned to Manila (21–23 June), and through 26 June operated as a
target ship for submarine flotilla practice.
The Chinese Revolution threatened Americans living within China. Marines
reinforced the legation guards at Peking (Beijing) in October 1911, and
transport Rainbow landed additional Marines at Woosung near Shanghai on 31
October. Protected cruiser Albany and Rainbow deployed 24 Marines to guard
the cable station at Shanghai (4–14 November). On 24 November, Saratoga (
Armored Cruiser No. 2) sailed from Shanghai to Taku (Tagu), China, where she
landed Marines to protect American missionaries. Ships disembarked further
shore parties at a number of Chinese ports during the succeeding weeks.
South Dakota supported these operations during her voyage home to the United
States, steaming an indirect route across the Pacific Rim for her return.
The ship sailed from Manila Bay to Woosung (26–30 June 1912). On 6 July,
she put to sea and sailed northerly courses to Tsingtao (Qingdao), reaching
that port on 8 July. Six days later, the cruiser made for Japanese waters,
arriving at Yokohama, Honshū, on 17 July. South Dakota sailed from Yokohama
on 24 July, and on 4 August reached Honolulu. She set out two days later,
reaching San Francisco on 15 August.
The following day through 21 December, she accomplished repairs at Mare
Island Navy Yard. Capt. David V.H. Allen relieved Capt. Bennett as the
commanding officer on 17 December. The ship departed the yard and coaled at
California City on 21 and 22 December, and then through the end of the year
called at San Francisco. Capt. Charles P. Plunkett relieved Capt. Allen as
the commanding officer on 6 January 1913. The ship carried out target
practice, a torpedo defense drill, night practice, and drills with
submarines off Coronado and San Diego (10 January–10 February).
NH 81339
Jupiter (Fuel Ship No. 3) fits out at Mare Island Navy Yard, on 3 December
1912. South Dakota is moored in the background—at left. Jupiter will be
converted into the first U.S. aircraft carrier, Langley (CV-1), following
World War I. (U.S. Navy Photograph NH 81339, Naval History & Heritage
Command)
Revolution tore Mexico apart in 1910. Wealthy landowners exploited
impoverished peons (peasants), and Francisco I. Madero, an opposition leader
, returned from exile in the U.S. and led a revolt against the country’s
president, Gen. Porfirio Diaz, on 20 November. Gen. Victoriano Huerta
overthrew and subsequently assassinated Madero. Disparate groups including
the Conventionalists, led by men like Emiliano Zapata and former cattle
rustler Francisco Villa; and Constitutionalists such as Gen. Venustiano
Carranza, fought across Mexico. The chaos endangered Americans caught in the
midst of the war and pushed President Woodrow Wilson to call on warships to
protect, and if necessary, to evacuate Americans.
South Dakota consequently made for Acapulco, Mexico, on 11 February 1913.
The cruiser reached Acapulco on 15 February and coaled. The ship called on
Mexican ports to demonstrate U.S. resolve, visiting Topolobampo (11–24
April), Mazatlán (25 and 26 April), and (27 April–2 May) returned to
Topolobampo. During each of these visits, she maintained wireless
communications to the north and to the south.
The ship returned to San Diego on 5 and 6 May 1913, and (8–19 May) called
at San Francisco. South Dakota entered drydock for repairs and painting at
Mare Island on 19 and 20 May, on 20 and 21 May coaled at Tiburon, Calif.,
and then visited San Francisco. She took part in Memorial Day commemorations
at Santa Barbara, Calif. (28–31 May). Through 5 June the ship visited San
Diego, and then participated in the dedication of a Memorial Day monument at
San Pedro and a preliminary speed run from 5 to 7 June. Two days of
standardization and endurance runs followed, and South Dakota completed
target practice and bore sighting off Coronado and San Diego through the end
of the month.
Capt. William M. Gilmer assumed command during this period. South Dakota
took part in the Fourth of July celebrations at Ventura, Calif. (3–6 July).
The ship returned to San Francisco but hove to off Sausalito on 9 July, and
some of her crewmen landed and helped civilian firefighters battle a fire
at Tamalpais, Calif. The cruiser coaled at Tiburon on 18 July, and from 20
to 23 July called at San Diego during a visit to that city by Secretary of
the Navy (SecNav) Josephus Daniels. Crewmen practiced their small arms
proficiency at a nearby range through 30 July, and the ship then returned to
the Bay Area, coaling at Tiburon on 1 August.
The Mexican Revolution again drew South Dakota southward, and she relieved
Pittsburgh (Armored Cruiser No. 4) at Guaymas, Mexico (10–21 August 1913).
During the following weeks, the ship operated in Mexican waters, carrying
out wireless tests at Puerto Refugio on 23 August, subcaliber gunnery
practice in San Francisquito Bay on 24 August, and the next day firing
torpedoes off San Juan Bentasta. South Dakota rendezvoused with California
and operated off Guaymas (26 August to 2 October). Prior to her departure
from Mexican waters, the ship coaled and then carried out subcaliber
training. South Dakota sailed on 3 October, six days later reaching San
Francisco.
She entered Mare Island Navy Yard for the installation of a new topmast (15
–17 October). The ship participated in the Portolá celebrations, in honor
of Spanish explorer Don Gaspar de Portolá Rovira’s (European) discovery of
the bay in 1769, at San Francisco (17–27 October), and returned to Mare
Island to replace her 8-inch gun sights (27–29 October). South Dakota
coaled at California City on 29 October.
From 2 to 10 November, she visited San Pedro to take part in the "aqueduct
celebrations," the public announcement of Federal approval of a program to
bring water via an aqueduct from the Hetch Hetchy Valley of Yosemite
National Park to the Bay Area. The cruiser then carried out periodic torpedo
exercises and subcaliber and preliminary runs for target practice off San
Pedro, San Diego, and Coronado through 22 November. South Dakota spent
Thanksgiving and Christmas drydocked at Mare Island, and coaled at
California City on 26 and 27 December. On 27 December South Dakota visited
San Francisco, where she received a draft for the Fleet and then sailed for
the Pacific Northwest. South Dakota joined the Reserve Force, Pacific Fleet,
at Puget Sound Navy Yard on 30 December 1913.
Lt. Comdr. Ralph Earle anchored dispatch ship Dolphin in Tampico on 6 April
1914. Earle sent his paymaster and a boat ashore, but the Mexicans arrested
the men because they landed in a “forbidden area,” parading them through
the streets. The Mexicans incarcerated an orderly from Minnesota (Battleship
No. 22) when he went ashore for the mail at Vera Cruz a few days later.
Rear Adm. Henry T. Mayo, Commander Fourth Division, demanded a 21-gun salute
in apology over the “Tampico Incident,” and President Wilson ordered the
Atlantic Fleet to send an expedition on 14 April. Reinforcements to patrol
along the Pacific coast included South Dakota, which detached from reserve
on 17 April 1914.
The following day, President Wilson wired an ultimatum as the lead ships of
the Atlantic Fleet arrived in Mexican waters. The Mexicans could salute the
flag prior to 1800 the following day or suffer the consequences, they
apologized and rendered the salute. Rumors circulated, however, that the
Germans attempted to smuggle 250 machine guns, 20,000 rifles, and 15 million
rounds of ammunition on board steamer Ypiranga into Vera Cruz. Wilson
therefore directed Rear Adm. Charles J. Badger, Commander Atlantic Fleet, to
seize the customhouse at Vera Cruz. On the morning of 19 April, U.S. Consul
William W. Canada notified Gen. Gustavo Maas, who led the garrison at the
port, of the planned landings to avoid bloodshed. Huerta ordered Maas to
make a show of force to influence foreign opinion among the observers on
board the ships in the outer harbor, which included British and French
armored cruisers Essex and Condé, respectively, and Spanish gunboat Carlos
V.
The Americans landed at Vera Cruz on 21 April 1914. Capt. William R. Rush,
the skipper of Florida (Battleship No. 30), commanded the landing force. Maj
. Smedley D. Butler led the Marines ashore, and Rear Adm. Frank F. Fletcher,
Commander First Division, shifted his flag to transport Prairie to monitor
the battle. Fletcher summarized the day’s fighting:
“Tuesday, in the face of an approaching norther [a cold gale] I landed
Marines and Sailors from the battleships Utah and Florida and the transport
Prairie and seized the Custom-house. The Mexican forces did not oppose our
landing, but opened fire with rifle and artillery after our seizure of the
Custom-house. The Prairie is shelling the Mexicans out of their positions.
Desultory firing from housetops and in the streets continues. I hold the
Custom-house and that section of the city in the vicinity of the wharves and
the American Consulate. Casualties, four dead and twenty wounded.”
The Americans established blocking positions across the streets leading
toward the Plaza de la Constitucion, the main square. The Mexicans turned
several buildings into strongholds and snipers shot at the invaders from
vantage points at the Benito Juarez lighthouse and Naval Academy, and from
box cars and warehouses along the waterfront. Gunfire from the ships broke-
up enemy troop concentrations, but the operations continued into the summer.
The Americans also seized Ypiranga, temporarily cutting off Huerta from his
supplies, but the arms on board eventually reached the general. The
invaders also left behind valuable stores. Wilson shrewdly allowed the
Constitutionalists to receive supplies, enabling them to snatch control from
Heurta, who resigned on 17 July and fled into exile.
South Dakota meanwhile sailed southerly courses to California City, where
she coaled on 21 April, and the following day loaded stores at San Francisco
. The ship then made for Mexican waters, reaching Acapulco on 28 April.
South Dakota patrolled off Mazatlan (16–23 May), and (24 May–5 June) off
La Paz.
While the ship operated in Mexican waters, Secretary of the Navy Daniels
issued General Order No. 99 on 1 June 1914. The order annulled article 826
of the Naval Instructions, effective on 1 July, by substituting it with the
following instruction: “The use or introduction for drinking purposes of
alcoholic liquors on board any naval vessel, or within any navy yard or
station, is strictly prohibited, and commanding officers will be held
responsible for the enforcement of this order.”
South Dakota returned to Mazatlan through the end of June. Following her
cruise in Mexican waters, South Dakota steamed to the Hawaiian Islands in
August 1914. She returned to Bremerton on 14 September and reverted to
reserve status on 28 September. The armored cruiser became the flagship of
the Reserve Force, Pacific Fleet, from 21 January 1915. Later in the year,
she participated in the Panama-Pacific Exposition, and then steamed in
Mexican waters. Milwaukee (Cruiser No. 21) relieved South Dakota in Mexican
waters on 5 February 1916. South Dakota completed repairs and an overhaul at
Puget Sound Navy Yard from November 1916 until 5 April 1917.
On 5 April 1917, South Dakota was again placed in full commission with the U
.S. entry into World War I—President Wilson declared war on the German
Empire the following day. On 11 April, Allied leaders conferred at the Navy
’s General Board in Washington, D.C. Secretary of the Navy Daniels,
Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt, CNO William S. Benson
, Adm. Henry T. Mayo, Commander-in-Chief Atlantic Fleet, Adm. Henry B.
Wilson, Commander Patrol Force, and members of their staffs and the General
Board conferred with their Allied counterparts, including British (Acting)
Vice Adm. Montague E. Browning, RN, Commander-in-Chief North America and
West Indies Station, and his French counterpart, Rear Adm. R.A. Grasset,
concerning the deployment of U.S. naval forces. The conferees agreed upon
ten points, five of which subsequently impacted South Dakota’s operations.
1. They assigned the USN to patrol the Atlantic coast from Canadian to South
American waters for three reasons:
A. To protect shipping for the Allied armies, including food for
their civilians, and Mexican oil for their economic and military use.
B. To protect against the expected U-boat attacks—these
planners feared that the Germans intended to establish (or already had
established) secret submarine bases to facilitate their attacks against
ships sailing in these waters.
C. Readiness to destroy German commerce raiders.
2. To prepare squadrons to operate against raiders in either the North or
South Atlantic. The British and French conferees emphasized the plans
concerning these squadrons (see C above) because enemy raiders had disrupted
Allied shipping during the war to date.
5. The deployment of U.S. vessels to protect nitrite shipments from Chilean
waters—vital for munitions manufacture.
6. To continue the deployment of the Asiatic Fleet.
10. To dispatch railway material via armed naval transports to French ports.
South Dakota shifted to the Atlantic to take part in these operations,
departing Bremerton on 12 April and reaching San Francisco three days later.
She underwent urgent repairs and loaded stores at Mare Island. During the
ship’s two weeks at Mare Island, the yard workers installed a radio set.
During this time frame, Capt. Lucius A. Bostwick assumed command.
South Dakota departed Mare Island for San Diego, Calif., and sailed from San
Diego on 7 May 1917. She hove to off San José, Guatemala. Adm. William B.
Caperton, Commander in Chief, Pacific Fleet, and Capt. Bostwick called on
the city of Guatemala. South Dakota reached Balboa, Canal Zone, on 21 May
1917. On 25 May, the ship passed through the Panama Canal, and coaled and
took on supplies and provisions at Cristóbal, near Colón. She rendezvoused
with Frederick (Armored Cruiser No. 8), Pittsburgh, and Pueblo (Armored
Cruiser No. 7) at Colón. The trio of cruisers sailed from Colón on 29 May,
holding drills, exercises, and sub-caliber practice while proceeding to the
South Atlantic for patrol duty from Brazilian ports. They arrived off Bahia
, Brazil, on 14 June. The squadron was to prevent German and Austro-
Hungarian ships interned at Bahia from escaping into the Atlantic to operate
as blockade runners or commerce raiders. South Dakota coaled from Nereus (
Fuel Ship No. 10).
Pittsburgh, Pueblo, and South Dakota sailed from Bahia on 20 June 1917,
reaching Rio de Janeiro two days later. While South Dakota visited Rio de
Janeiro, she received coal from Nereus and ammunition and stores from
Glacier (Store Ship No. 4). The ships called on the port to celebrate U.S.
Independence Day, and held full dress on 4 July. Brazilian President
Venceslau Brás [Pereira Gomes] visited Pittsburgh at 1300, and fifteen
minutes later, South Dakota landed the ships battalion to parade as infantry
through the streets of the city. British, French, and Brazilian forces also
landed and took part in the festivities. South Dakota recorded that the
large crowds of onlookers displayed “great enthusiasm” during the
celebration.
Frederick, which had reached Rio de Janeiro in the interim, Pittsburgh,
Pueblo, and South Dakota sailed on 6 July 1917, four days later arriving at
Montevideo, Uruguay. The squadron sailed from Uruguayan waters on 23 July.
The following day, a composite Argentinean division of three cruisers and
four torpedo boats met the U.S. ships and escorted them into Buenos Aires.
South Dakota recorded that the Argentineans provided a “very cordial”
welcome during multiple excursions, dinners, and theater parties. The ships
sailed from Buenos Aires on 1 August, called on Montevideo, and returned to
Rio de Janeiro on 6 August. South Dakota loaded stores and fresh provisions
from Glacier.
NH 84724
Armored cruisers moor at Montevideo, Uruguay, during the summer or autumn of
1917. The ship on the right is either San Diego (Armored Cruiser No. 6) or
South Dakota, while the ship on the left is either Pittsburgh (Armored
Cruiser No. 4) or Pueblo (Armored Cruiser No. 7). (U.S. Navy Photograph NH
84724, Naval History & Heritage Command)
Frederick and South Dakota stood out of Rio de Janeiro and proceeded toward
Bahia on 9 August 1917. The ships sailed in accordance with Campaign Order
No. 1, designating them as the Northern Patrol Force. These orders directed
the two armored cruisers to alternate their patrols to capture or sink enemy
vessels north of Bahia as far as Ilha Fernando de Noronha and east to 20°
W. One of the vessels was to steam at sea for a patrol of 14 days, cruising
at ten knots during daylight and five knots at nighttime. The other cruiser
was to remain at Todos os Santos, a bay at Bahia, overhauling during the
first seven days, and then standing by for the second seven days. Pittsburgh
and Pueblo patrolled from Rio de Janeiro eastward to cover the trade lanes
between that city and Bahia.
The first 24 hours inaugurated the patrols with a dramatic confrontation.
German commerce raider Seadler wreaked havoc with Allied shipping during
this period. Formerly U.S. full-rigged ship Pass-of-Balmaha, she proved
successful as a raider in large measure because of her sailing rig, which
repeatedly enabled Seadler to surprise her victims. The raider prowled in
South American waters prior to the arrival of South Dakota but then
temporarily disappeared from Allied intelligence. While proceeding toward
Bahia on 10 August 1917, South Dakota sighted a full rigged ship on the
starboard bow. The vessel resembled descriptions of Seadler, and the cruiser
intercepted the suspected raider. A boarding party inspected the ship but
discovered Norwegian vessel Sandpigen, bound with a load of coal from
Philadelphia, Pa., to Santos, Brazil. In April 1917, Seadler rounded Cape
Horn and hunted her prey in the Pacific. She anchored at Mopeha in the
Society Islands on 31 July. Seadler wrecked on a reef there on 2 August.
South Dakota returned to Bahia on 12 August 1917, and continued her patrols
into the autumn. The armored cruiser stopped, boarded, and searched a number
of suspicious vessels during these patrols, but without results. Adm.
Caperton shifted his flag from Pittsburgh to South Dakota on 21 September,
when Pittsburgh sailed for a cruise. Caperton returned to Pittsburgh on 1
October. On 14 October, Frederick, Pittsburgh, Pueblo, and South Dakota
sailed from Rio de Janeiro. The ships carried out battle practice and
maneuvers en route to Montevideo, arriving on 18 October.
South Dakota received orders detaching her from duty with the Pacific Fleet
and directing her to rendezvous with Division Two, Cruiser Force Atlantic
Fleet, at New York, on 2 November 1917. Prior to her departure, the ship
received drafts of men from Frederick, Glacier, Pittsburgh, and Pueblo for
transfer to the U.S. South Dakota reached Port Castries at St. Lucia,
British West Indies, on 18 November. While the ship coaled, Raleigh (
Protected Cruiser No. 8) arrived and coaled, following her voyage from
Hampton Roads, Va., via NS Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, to Rio de Janeiro. South
Dakota sailed from Port Castries the following day.
The ship received orders to proceed to Hampton Roads on 22 November 1917.
Two days later, she stood into Hampton Roads and began coaling. South Dakota
also loaded thousands of pieces of lumber for delivery to cruisers at New
York. The ship sailed on 26 November, and the following day reached New York
. South Dakota completed slight repairs and a short overhaul at New York
Navy Yard from 5 to 15 December. She carried out painting and cleaned her
bottom, and loaded stores and provisions. South Dakota received orders to
remove her 6-inch guns from the gun deck on 12 December, and accomplished
the work within two days.
NH 96622
San Diego (Armored Cruiser No. 6) or South Dakota photographed with
Privateer (Section Patrol Boat No. 179, right), in 1917. (U.S. Navy
Photograph NH 96622, Naval History & Heritage Command)
She sailed from New York on 15 December 1917, and then conducted firing
practice in the Southern Drill Grounds in Chesapeake Bay. The ship coaled at
Hampton Roads, and reached the North River Anchorage at New York on
Christmas Eve. Generally speaking, the larger and faster cruisers of Cruiser
Squadron One escorted troop convoys, while the smaller vessels of Cruiser
Squadron Two escorted cargo convoys. Frederick, Pueblo, San Diego (Armored
Cruiser No. 6), and South Dakota initially comprised Division Two of Cruiser
Squadron One.
South Dakota commenced operations supporting troop convoys to French waters
during the New Year. The ship received orders to proceed to Halifax, Nova
Scotia, to escort “fast liner convoys” on 2 January 1918, ocean liners
pressed into service as transports comprised some of the ships that South
Dakota escorted during World War I. She sailed the following day, and
reached Halifax on 5 January. On 12 January, South Dakota escorted her first
such convoy from Halifax, bound for Liverpool, England. German U-boats
failed to attack the convoy, and South Dakota came about at the mid-Atlantic
rendezvous point on 21 January, returning to Halifax on 29 January.
The armored cruiser then escorted a convoy consisting of predominantly
British ships: Adriatic, Cassandra, Cherryleaf, Corsican, Glaucus,
Messanobic, Ordina, Scandinavian, and Teutonic. The convoy sailed from
Halifax on 5 February 1918, the following day rendezvousing with Grampian
and Northland and French transport Canada. South Dakota came about in the
mid-Atlantic on 13 February, while the other ships continued to Liverpool.
Heavy seas plowed into South Dakota and at 1305 on 20 February, a large wave
swept over the boat deck, knocking all the boats on the port boat deck from
their cradles and damaging every boat. The cruiser returned to Halifax on
22 February.
Montana (Armored Cruiser No. 13) relieved South Dakota, which sailed from
Halifax on 25 February 1918, two days later arriving at Portsmouth, N.H. The
ship completed repairs and an overhaul at Portsmouth Navy Yard, from 28
February to 15 April. South Dakota sailed from Portsmouth on 15 April, and
carried out target practice at Hampton Roads. She coaled and on 27 April
anchored at New York.
South Dakota escorted Troop Convoy Group 32, consisting of U.S. ships
Finland, Kroonland (Id. No. 1541), Manchuria (Id. No. 1633), Martha
Washington (Id. No. 3019), and Powhatan (Id. No. 3013), from New York on 1
May 1918. Matsonia (Id. No. 1589) served as the flagship and rendezvoused
with the convoy from Newport News, Va. South Dakota turned over the convoy
to a screen of seven destroyers on 10 May and came about. The armored
cruiser held target practice en route, and arrived at Hampton Roads on 18
May. The convoy continued to St. Nazaire, France. The cruiser refueled and
sailed from Hampton Roads on 24 May, the following day arriving at New York.
The Western Escort, comprising South Dakota, Huntington (Armored Cruiser No.
5), and Fairfax (Destroyer No. 93) and Gregory (Destroyer No. 82),
participated in the escort of Troop Convoy Group 45, consisting of: U.S.
flagship President Grant (Id. No. 3014) and Nopatin (Id. No. 2195), French
steamship Patria, and Italian steamship Re di Italia from New York; along
with Pocahantas (Id. No. 3044) and Susquehanna (Id. No. 3016), and Italian
steamships Caserta and Duca d’Aosta from Newport News. The ships gathered
at New York and sailed on 23 June. President Grant dropped out of the convoy
and returned to New York, renewing her voyage to French waters with another
convoy on 30 June. Overnight on 2 July, a German U-boat torpedoed transport
Covington in that convoy, which sank with a loss of six men. The destroyers
of the Eastern Escort meanwhile joined the remaining ships of Troop Convoy
Group 45 on 3 July, and South Dakota came about.
South Dakota’s lookouts sighted what the ship reported as “a suspicious
disturbance” in the water ahead on the starboard bow, at 1920 on 4 July
1918. Watchstanders spotted “a dark object,” but could not confirm that an
enemy submarine stalked the ship. Owing to a shortage of coal, South Dakota
changed course for Newport, R.I., arriving at the Naval Coal Depot at
Melville, R.I., on 11 July. The ship coaled and sailed on 12 July, the next
day reaching Hampton Roads. She refueled and then made for New York on 14
July, arriving the following day.
The Western Escort, consisting of South Dakota, Hopkins (Destroyer No. 6),
Mayrant (Destroyer No. 31), and Walke (Destroyer No. 34), shepherded Troop
Convoy Group 51 from New York on 18 July 1918. American steamships George
Washington (Id. No. 3018), Antigone (Id. No. 3007), De Kalb (Id. No. 3010),
Lenape (Id. No. 2700), and Rijndam (Id. No. 2505), together with Italian
steamship Regina di Italia and British cargo ship Ophir, sailed with the
group. Huntington escorted Pastores, Princess Matoika (Id. No. 2290), and
Wilhelmina (Id. No. 2168), British steamship Czaritza, and Italian steamship
Dante Aligheri from Newport News, and they rendezvoused with the convoy.
George Washington served as the flagship, she had formerly sailed as a
German passenger liner of the same name, operated by the North Germany Lloyd
Line but seized by the U.S. The following day, German submarine U-156 sank
San Diego off Fire Island, Long Island. South Dakota and San Diego had often
operated together.
South Dakota’s lookouts sighted a suspicious disturbance in the water on
the starboard bow at 1025 on 21 July. The ship fired four rounds from her No
. 1 6-inch gun at the apparent U-boat, but the target disappeared. South
Dakota rendezvoused with eight destroyers of the Eastern Escort and came
about on 28 July, returning to Hampton Roads on 6 August. George Washington
and De Kalb subsequently detached and made for Brest, France, while the
balance of the convoy continued to St. Nazaire.
The armored cruiser coaled and stood out the same day, taking charge of
Troop Convoy Group 55. Hull (Destroyer No. 7) joined South Dakota escorting
the convoy, consisting of Huron (Id. No. 1408), Madawaska (Id. No. 3011),
and Zeelandia (Id. No. 2507), British steamship Kursk, and Italian steamship
Duca D’Abruzzi. That evening, the Italians reported a dirigible in need of
help, and South Dakota dispatched Hull to investigate. The destroyer in
turn directed submarine chaser SC-201 to the assistance of the airship at
2345. South Dakota sighted and joined the New York section of the convoy,
escorted by Pueblo, on 7 August. She turned over her charges and proceeded
toward New York, arriving at 1014 on 8 August.
A heavy squall of wind and rain lashed New York on 14 August 1918. French
armored cruiser Condé grounded on the east bank of the river abreast of
Grant’s Tomb. South Dakota sent a boat to the assistance of the French, and
three tugs hauled the ship off undamaged. South Dakota accomplished minor
hull repairs, work on her anchor and engine, bottom cleaning, and painting
at the nearby Navy Yard from 16 to 23 August. The yard coaled the ship and
installed Burney gear for protection against mines, two otters designed to
tow underwater at the end of steel cables sheared off mines, setting them
adrift to be destroyed by gunfire. She then anchored off St. George, Staten
Island.
South Dakota and Rathburne (Destroyer No. 113) escorted Mercantile Convoy H
x 46 (fast) on 23 August 1918. British steamship Alsatian served as the
flagship of the convoy, which comprised Zeelandia, British steamships
Adriatic, Caronia, Cedric, Ceramic, Empress of Britain, Princess Juliana,
and Pyrrhus, and French steamships Chicago and Lorraine. Preble (Destroyer
No. 12), Bailey (Coast Torpedo Boat No. 8), two groups of submarine chasers,
kite balloons, and planes escorted the ships from New York until they
cleared the swept channel.
South Dakota opened fire on a suspicious looking disturbance about 1,500
yards on the starboard beam, at 1252 on 25 August. The ship fired 17 rounds
before the disturbance vanished. The ship came about on 2 September, and
returned to Hampton Roads on 10 September. Chicago and Lorraine later
detached and sailed to Bordeaux, France, and the remaining ships made for
Liverpool, England. The cruiser coaled and then carried out target practice
at Tangier Sound, Chesapeake Bay, returning to New York on 15 September.
Capt. John M. Luby relieved Capt. Bostwick as the commanding officer of
South Dakota on 17 September.
At 1915 on 21 September 1918, South Dakota received instructions from
Commander, Cruiser and Transport Force, to proceed to sea soon as possible
to assist steamship Maine, which lost three blades of her propeller,
dropping her maximum speed to three knots. The cruiser began unmooring at
0110 on 22 September, but a fouled hawse delayed her sortie until 0525.
South Dakota reached Maine at 1235, and stood by her during the afternoon
watch, turning over the stricken steamship to Lamberton (Destroyer No. 119)
at 1800. South Dakota then returned to New York.
South Dakota formed the principal Ocean Escort, and Michigan (Battleship No.
27) and Bell (Destroyer No. 95) the Western Escort, for Troop Convoy Group
70, consisting of De Kalb (the flagship), George Washington, and British
steamships Armagh, Coronia, and Ulysses. The convoy sailed from New York on
30 September 1918. Israel (Destroyer No. 98) sailed independently from
Philadelphia and joined the convoy.
Lookouts on board South Dakota sighted a suspicious object broad on the
starboard bow about 1,000 yards distant, at 1107 on 1 October 1918. The
cruiser fired at the target, which resembled a mine with contact horns. The
ship did not sink the target, which passed between Coronia and Ulysses, the
report did not specify whether from the current or as the ships steamed
passed. The convoy rendezvoused with Dante Alighieri, the flagship of the
second group;Czaritza, Fairfax, and Hull from Newport News at 1318 on that
busy day.
During this period, the worldwide influenza epidemic caused an estimated
fifty million deaths. Navy medical facilities treated 121,225 USN and USMC
victims including 4,158 fatalities during 1918. “The morgues were packed
almost to the ceiling with bodies stacked one on top of another,” Navy
Nurse Josie Brown of Naval Hospital, Great Lakes, Ill., recalled. Influenza
swept through the troops and crewmen crowded on board the ships of Troop
Convoy Group 70 during the voyage, killing 40 people: 18 of the 4,500
soldiers, 125 nurses, and 150 crewmen on board George Washington; one of the
1,593 Marines on board De Kalb; four of the 1,886 soldiers on Armagh; one
crewman and one of the 2,274 soldiers on Dante Alighieri; and 15 of the 3,
922 soldiers and 217 other passengers on Coronia. None of the 1,296 soldiers
on board Czaritza or the 2,529 men on Ulysses perished. The disease struck
a total of 1,094 people: 30 on board De Kalb; 530 on George Washington; 88
on Armagh; 268 on Coronia; 52 on Czaritza; 63 on Dante Alighieri; and 63 on
Ulysses.
The crowded berthing spaces favored contagion. Crewmembers consequently kept
the soldiers and Marines in the open air as much as possible, and held
boxing bouts and band concerts to sustain morale. Doctors and nurses
strictly enforced regulations in regard to spraying noses and throats twice
daily, and wearing gauze coverings over mouths and noses, except when eating
. Whenever possible, each of the transports fitted out their medical
departments to duplicate the facilities available at hospitals, consisting
of a surgeon’s examining room, dispensary, laboratory, dental office,
dressing room, operating room, special treatment room, sick bay, and
isolation ward. In addition, several dispensaries and dressing stations
established throughout each ship tended minor cases.
Vice Adm. Albert Gleaves, Commander Cruiser and Transport Force, reported
that the computation of the final tabulations from all ships indicated that
8.8 percent of the troops transported during the epidemic through the end of
the war became ill, and of those who suffered from influenza or pneumonia,
5.9 percent died. This gave an average Army death rate for the individual
voyages of 5.7 percent per 1,000. The Navy sick rate reached 8.9 percent,
and the Navy death rate 1.7 percent.
South Dakota turned over the convoy to the Eastern Escort at 1937 on 11
October 1918. The Eastern Escort comprised Conner (Destroyer No. 72) the
senior ship, Burrows (Destroyer No. 29), Drayton (Destroyer No. 23),
Ericsson (Destroyer No. 56), Jarvis (Destroyer No. 38), McDougal (Destroyer
No. 54), Nicolson (Destroyer No. 52), O’Brien (Destroyer No. 51), Roe (
Destroyer No. 24), and Warrington (Destroyer No. 30). The cruiser came about
and reached Hampton Roads on 18 October.
The ship next escorted the Newport News Division of Troop Convoy Group 76 on
21 October 1918. The group comprised Martha Washington (the division
flagship), Aeolus, and Italian steamship Duca D’Aosta. New Hampshire (
Battleship No. 25) and Charleston (Cruiser No. 22) guarded the New York
Division of the convoy from that port, consisting of Pocahontas (the convoy
flagship) Comfort (Hospital Ship No. 3), Ophir, and Brazilian steamship
Sobral. South Dakota came about at the junction point where the two
divisions formed the convoy on 22 October, and the following day reached New
York. The convoy continued to Brest.
South Dakota, Philip (Destroyer No. 76), and British steamship City of
London escorted the 13 British ships of Mercantile Convoy HX-54 (fast) from
New York on 27 October. South Dakota came about on 6 November. The Armistice
ended World War I on 11 November, and the cruiser returned to Hampton Roads
on 15 November. Allied ships transported a total of 2,079,880 American
troops to Europe before the Armistice: 952,581 in U.S. vessels; 911,047 in U
.S. naval transports; 1,006,987 in British ships; 68,246 in British-leased
Italian vessels; and 52,066 in French, Italian, and other foreign ships.
American ships embarked 46.25 percent of the troops; U.S. naval transports
43.75; British vessels 48.25; British-leased Italian ships 3 percent; and
the others 2.5 percent. July 1918 marked the month of the largest number of
troops transported: 306,350. Some 1,720,360 troops sailed under U.S. escort;
297,903 under British escort; and 61,617 under French escort. American
ships escorted 82.75 percent of these vessels; the British 14.125 percent;
and the French 3.125 percent. The Cruiser and Transport Force expanded to a
fleet of 142 ships by the Armistice. The Navy also counted 453 cargo ships,
with another 106 ready for entry into naval service.
South Dakota carried out target practice at Tangier Sound (17–22 November).
On 25 November, the ship entered New York Navy Yard and began fitting out
to enable her to embark troops returning from Europe. South Dakota sailed
from Hampton Roads on 21 December 1918, arriving at Brest on New Year’s Day
1919.
Early in the New Year the ship embarked 16 army officers and 1,372 soldiers
of the 56th Coast Artillery Regiment, 144 men of the 474th Aero Construction
Squadron, of which but 33 were privates, and four naval officers and 29
sailors — a total of 1,571 passengers — at Brest and set out for home (5–
18 January 1919). Two days out a northwesterly gale slammed into South
Dakota, and at 1130 that morning, “the biggest wave I ever saw,” Cmdr. P.F
. Caldwell, her executive officer, recalled, tore into the ship. “It
tumbled in over the forecastle head and the wall of water swept over the
upper bridge, where Capt. J. [John] M. Luby, our commander, and others [one
of them being Lt. Frederick T. Montgomery, the officer of the deck],
including myself, were in the wooden pilot house. The next moment I was with
the others in a tangle of broken glass and lumber. The pilot house was
destroyed and there were six of us badly cut and bruised.”
The battered ship returned to the United States, but heavy fog that morning
compelled her to anchor temporarily at Tompkinsville, on Staten Island, N.Y.
Col. William E. Wood, the chief of staff and uniformed head of Connecticut
’s Police Reserve, led a delegation from Danbury, Conn., who welcomed the
returning Connecticut National Guardsmen. Their band alternated with the
ship’s band in playing popular airs while the women police reservists threw
packages of chocolate, candies, and cigars on board to the doughboys and
sailors. When the fog cleared the warship moored at Hoboken, N.J. Montana
meanwhile embarked 1,361 army veterans, most of whom belonged to the 3rd and
4th Trench Mortar Battalions, and set out from Brest an hour later than
South Dakota and reached Hoboken an hour after the latter passed the Hook.
President Grant, with 4,891 men on board, set out on the same dates but
steered a more southerly course than the two cruisers, and escaped much of
the foul weather en route to Hoboken. French liner La Rochambeau carried 883
men of the 337th and 339th Field Artillery of the 88th Infantry Division,
and 50 “casual” (traveling individually) officers. The gale pummeled La
Rochambeau, however, and the ship wired the army authorities at Hoboken that
she could not continue against the heavy seas and changed course for
Halifax.
The armored cruiser put to sea from New York for Brest on 23 January 1919,
but on 1 February she broke her port propeller shaft. The ship returned for
repairs to Portsmouth Navy Yard, reaching the yard on 22 February. South
Dakota sailed on 15 June, the same day reaching Boston, Mass. She stood out
of Boston on 18 June, and on 28 June reached Brest. The ship embarked 66
army officers and 1,826 soldiers, a total of 1,892 returnees. South Dakota
sailed on 9 July, and on 19 July reached Hoboken, N.J. During these two
voyages with the Cruiser and Transport Force, the ship brought a total of 3,
463 troops home.
The Russian Civil War swept through Siberia during this period. The
Bolsheviks, known as ‘Reds,’ and a disparate mix of people loyal to the
Romanovs, or at least opposed to the Reds, and known as the ‘Whites,’
fought across fronts measuring thousands of miles. The Allies felt betrayed
by the Russian withdrawal from the war, and sought to recover huge stores of
munitions they had shipped to support the Russians. In addition, the
Japanese sought to annex Russian territory. The Allies therefore intervened
in the fighting, the Japanese landing troops at Vladivostok, Siberia, on 30
December 1917. Further Allied expeditions included American Sailors from
Olympia (Cruiser No. 6), and soldiers of the 339th Infantry Regiment and
310th Engineers, who landed at Archangelsk and Murmansk on the White Sea.
Nearly 70,000 former Austro-Hungarian soldiers of Czechoslovakian origin
complicated the tangled politics. The Czech Legionnaires desired to return
to their newly independent homeland. The Bolsheviks planned to disarm the
Legionnaires, however, the émigrés learned of the plan and mutinied,
seizing a section of the Trans-Siberian Railway in June 1918. The
counterrevolutionary Adm. Aleksandr Kolchak cooperated with the Czech
Legionnaires, and they collectively defeated the principal Bolshevik forces
east of the Volga River. This victory enabled the Siberians to form an
autonomous nation with their capital at Omsk. An estimated 12,000 Czech
Legionnaires captured Vladivostok on the morning of 29 June 1918, but
desultory firing continued into the afternoon. Adm. Austin M. Knight,
Commander-in-Chief Asiatic Fleet, who broke his flag in Brooklyn (Cruiser No
. 3), thus ordered Sailors and Marines to land and guard the U.S. consulate,
and to act as part of a patrol force consisting of Czech Legionnaires,
British Royal Marines, and Japanese and Chinese sailors. These men protected
the USN radio station and the Russian navy yard, and restored order and
prevented further destruction within the city.
The retreating Reds murdered Czar Nicholas II and his family at Ekaterinburg
in July 1918, but Leon Trotsky (Leib D. Bronstein), the Bolshevik Commissar
of War, then rallied his troops at Kazan on the Volga River and drove the
Whites across Siberia. Adm. William L. Rodgers relieved Knight in command of
the Asiatic Fleet in late 1918. Kolchak renewed his march the following
spring, and the Bolsheviks only narrowly repulsed him in the spring of 1919.
The fighting seesawed through the summer and into the autumn.
South Dakota underwent fitting out as a flagship for the Asiatic Fleet, and
then shifted from the Cruiser and Transport Force on 20 July 1919. On 1
September, Rear Adm. Casey B. Morgan relieved Adm. Gleaves, and Gleaves
hoisted his flag as Commander-in-Chief Asiatic Fleet in South Dakota at New
York. Most of the experienced crewmen discharged from the Navy or
transferred from the ship prior to her departure, and the crew consisted
almost entirely of recruits. In addition, she embarked a draft of 400
recruits for other ships on the Asiatic Station.
The cruiser sailed from New York on 5 September 1919, passed through the
Panama Canal, and visited the Galapagos Islands, Marquesas, Tahiti, and Pago
Pago during her voyage to Philippine waters. Gleaves observed that the
journey could prove “of great value as an alternative route to the
Philippines.” He also noted that the ship’s interception of messages from
USN radio stations indicated “a matter of considerable importance in times
of war.” South Dakota reached Manila on 27 October.
Gleaves reported his disappointment in the “old and obsolete vessels” of
the Asiatic Fleet, adding that all of the ships operated “short of
compliment.” Upon his arrival, Albany completed repairs at Olongapo, and
colliers and yard craft operated in Philippine waters. Elcano (Gunboat No.
38), Monocacy (River Gunboat No. 2), Palos (River Gunboat No. 1), Quiros (
Gunboat No. 40), Samar (Gunboat No. 41), Villalobos (Gunboat No. 42), and
Wilmington (Gunboat No. 8) comprised the Yangtze Patrol along that vast
river of the Chinese heartland. Helena (Gunboat No. 9) and Pampanga (Gunboat
No. 39) sailed as the South China Patrol on the Canton (Guangzhou) River.
Vice Adm. Rodgers, Commander Division One, broke his flag in Brooklyn at
Vladivostok, supported by station ship New Orleans (Cruiser No. 22).
The Bolsheviks continued to drive Kolchak’s demoralized forces across
Siberia, capturing Omsk on 14 November 1919. Two days later, Brooklyn and
New Orleans landed Sailors and Marines to assist in policing Vladivostok, a
stray bullet wounding a man from New Orleans. Nearly 8,000 U.S. troops of
the 8th Division and 27th and 31th Infantry Regiments under Maj. Gen.
William S. Graves, USA, an estimated 40,000 Japanese soldiers, and thousands
of Czech Legionnaires and British, French, and Italian troops at times
filled the ensuing power vacuum by holding key positions along the Amur
Railway, and along the Trans-Siberian Railroad from Vladivostok westward
toward Lake Baikal. Refugees flooded the ports, and a typhus epidemic raged
virtually unchecked without adequate medicinal supplies, the Allies had
decided to withdraw from the Russian Civil War and curtailed their shipments
of supplies to the Whites.
South Dakota completed repairs, and on 8 December 1919, Rodgers sailed on
board Brooklyn from Vladivostok. Gleaves sailed from Shanghai and on 12
January 1920 reached Vladivostok. American troops concentrated at the port
preliminary to their evacuation, and the first contingent embarked on board
U.S. Army transport Sheridan and sailed for Manila on 25 January. Kolchak’s
troops continued to desert, however, and Soviet partisans entered the
outskirts of Vladivostok on 31 January. Lt. Gen. Sergei Rozanoff, who
commanded the White garrison, sought asylum at the Japanese headquarters.
South Dakota and Albany landed Sailors and Marines to restore order, and the
Americans reinstated the Zemstvo (a council). Gleaves tersely reported that
the “city became tranquil.” The Czechs betrayed Kolchak to the Bolsheviks
, who executed the admiral at Irkutsk on 7 February.
Gleaves sailed on board South Dakota from Vladivostok on 12 March 1920,
leaving Albany to maintain the U.S. naval presence in the city. South Dakota
reached Japanese waters, coaling at Nagasaki, Kyūshū, and then visiting K
ōbe and Yokohama, Honshū. The admiral reported that cordial relations
marked his visits, but added without elaboration that the hosts extended “
unusual courtesies” to their visitors. Graves and his staff sailed with the
last of the American troops from Vladivostok for Manila on 2 April. Two
days later, the Japanese disarmed the majority of the White troops in the
city and the Maritime Provinces, claiming the necessity of the action to
protect themselves from attacks by Russian bandits. Red and White partisans
then clashed with the Japanese. The fighting occurred mostly in the
countryside, because the partisans, of both factions, lacked the strength to
oust the Japanese from their positions. Gleaves meanwhile attended an
Imperial Garden Party at Tōkyō on 18 April, but the ongoing crisis
compelled his return on board South Dakota to Vladivostok on 25 April.
The deployment of the armored cruiser enabled Gleaves to release Albany to
carry out target practice, and to establish a summer base for U.S. ships at
Chefoo (Yāntái), China. New Orleans returned to Vladivostok on 21 May, and
South Dakota made for Yāntái. Gleaves reported that the skippers of the
other two ships, Capt. William C. Watts of Albany, and Capt. Edgar B.
Larimer of New Orleans, performed their arduous and exacting tasks with the
multi-national cabals with “conspicuous ability and tact.” South Dakota
reached Yāntái on 25 May, and Gleaves shifted his flag to general cargo
ship General Alava, she served as a transport. The admiral then landed and
traveled to Beijing to confer with U.S. Minister to China Charles R. Crane.
South Dakota was renamed Huron in honor of that city in South Dakota on 7
June 1920. The construction of the second South Dakota (Battleship No. 49)
drove the decision, in order to free the name for the battleship.
South Dakota, Albany, New Orleans, light minelayer Rizal, and Destroyer
Division 13 assembled at Yāntái during the latter part of May and early
June. All of the ships completed short range battle practice and director
practice, with the exception of Elliot (Destroyer No. 146) and Upshur (
Destroyer No. 144), which reinforced the Yangtze Patrol during turmoil
triggered by unpaid Chinese warlord soldiers. The Americans brought Battle
Target Raft No. 18 from Manila for these exercises, but the raft lost keel
and ballast and capsized. Sailors erected masts on the side of the raft,
spread nets, and the ships continued to use the vessel as a target.
Huron illustrated a microcosm of the ships operating in the Orient when she
reported to the Asiatic Fleet that she logged nine desertions, 16 summary
courts martial, one deck court, 26 petty punishments, and 24 sick men
requiring hospitalization from 1 July 1919 to 1 July 1920.
The ship carried out what she reported as a “diplomatic mission” at Tagu
from 10 to 13 July. She returned to Chinwangtao (Qinhuangdao), a tiny port
located in proximity to Tientsin (Tianjin) that served as a refueling and
communications station for the Asiatic Fleet. Huron was redesignated CA-9 on
17 July 1920. She served in the Asiatic Fleet for the next seven years,
operating in Philippine waters during the winter and out of Shanghai and Yā
ntái during the summer. The ship intermittently carried out target practice
at Yāntái, from 4 August to 15 September 1920.
Seaman 2nd Class John J. Morrill of Huron led a detail of mess cooks
consisting of Seaman 2nd Class James V. Arrington, Anton Huhn, David
Matheson, and William H. Moore, and Fireman 3rd Class Edwin Blair to the
forward flour hold to break out flour required in the bake shop, at 1400 on
7 August 1921. Prior to this date, Sailors had noted foul air in the hold on
several occasions, but had not submitted a report to address the issue up
the chain of command.
Matheson entered the compartment but an unknown gas, subsequently analyzed
as carbon dioxide, overcame him and he fell unconscious. Morrill and Huhn
assisted their fallen shipmate, only to drop to the deck from the noxious
fumes. One of the mess cooks called out to the chief petty officer’s
quarters, located directly above the hold, that the vapors overcame the men.
He then rushed to the dispensary for help. Another mess cook reported to
the Officer of the Deck, who immediately sent reinforcements. Chief
Electrician’s Mate Harry Kramer and Chief Machinist’s Mate William Wacker
heard the Sailor call out and went down into the hold. The fumes overcame
Wacker, but Kramer stumbled from the compartment to the platform above.
Several chiefs, hospital corpsmen, and other Sailors arrived. Chief
Machinist’s Mate Merton H. Mangold descended to the flour hold and
attempted to tie a line around Wacker to pull him to safety. The carbon
dioxide almost overcame Mangold but he escaped. Kramer and Chief Electrician
Clarence A. Howell rigged a windsail to a discharge from the ventilating
system and lowered the contrivance to circulate fresh air in the hold.
Mangold determinedly returned to the compartment, having a line about his
own body and another for use in hoisting the victims. Mangold secured a line
to Wacker and then clambered aloft. Sailors drew Wacker up to the platform.
Chief Watertender Walter T. Foley climbed down, attached a line to Matheson,
and assisted in drawing him from the hold. The fumes drove Foley from the
compartment before he could fasten a line to a second man. Shipwright Frank
C. Heckard went down, attached a line to Huhn, and assisted in hoisting him
from the storeroom. Heckard returned to the compartment, attached a line to
Morrill, and assisted in raising him to the deck above. The other crewmen
then hoisted Heckard out of the storeroom. Huhn and Morrill died, but
Sailors used artificial respiration to revive the other men. SecNav Edwin
Denby issued letters of commendation to Foley, Heckard, Howell, Seaman 2nd
Class Wesley A. Iler (who took part in the rescue), Kramer, Mangold, and
Wacker. Investigators concluded that fermentation of damp flour generated
the gas.
Huron continued to show the flag across China, visiting Qinhuangdao from 16
to 28 September 1920, Port Arthur (Lüshun), Manchuria, on 29 and 30
September, and Darien (Lüda) from 1 to 4 October. The ship returned to Yā
ntái through 6 October, and put into Qingdao (7–11 October), Shanghai (12
–26 October), and Foochow (Fuzhou) from 28 to 30 October. Huron made her
first visit to Formosa (Taiwan) when she stopped at Keelung on Halloween.
She then returned to the Chinese mainland and visited Amoy (2–4 November),
the following day Swatow, and Hong Kong (6–18 November). The cruiser
celebrated Thanksgiving in Philippine waters and loaded supplies at Manila (
20–29 November), and fired practice torpedoes at the Torpedo Range on 29
and 30 November. She then completed an overhaul and repairs at Olongapo
through 21 January 1921.
The ship held liberty for her crew at Manila (21 January–23 February 1921),
and carried out rehearsal runs at Mariveles on 23 and 24 January, before
returning to Manila through 28 January. Huron carried out additional
rehearsal runs at Subic Bay (28 February and 1 March), and (1–4 March) at
Lingayen Gulf, before returning to Manila to enable crewmen to venture
ashore for liberty (4–7 March). Further gunnery target practice at Olongapo
(7–10 March), a brief respite at Manila (10–14 March), additional gunfire
exercises at Olongapo (14–21 March), and another interlude at Manila (21
March–18 April) prepared the ship for her participation in joint Army and
Navy maneuvers at Corregidor (18–20 April). Huron lay at Manila through 10
May. The ship then made for Chinese waters and Adm. Joseph Strauss,
Commander in Chief Asiatic Fleet, inspected the cruiser at Shanghai on 13
May. Strauss reported to SecNav that “Huron, considering her age, is in
very good material condition but owing to the difficulty of obtaining boiler
parts her boiler casings are burning out and will have to be renewed
shortly.”
A cholera epidemic broke out in Shanghai while Huron visited the city in
September 1921. Shanghai consisted of districts divided demographically by
the ethnic composition of their inhabitants, and the ship placed the Chinese
neighborhoods and the Japanese Quarter out of bounds for crewmen,
restricting the men’s liberty to the International Settlement. These strict
measures prevented the spread of the epidemic amongst Europeans and
Americans, and Huron did not report any cases of cholera on board. The
cruiser took similar precautions during problems with malaria and dengue
fever, which also prevented the spread of these diseases among the crew.
The ongoing fighting between rival Chinese warlords in the Beijing area
threatened Americans and other foreigners living within Beijing and Tianjin
in April 1922. United States Minister Jacob G. Schurman appealed to Adm.
Strauss for a cruiser and 150 Marines to reinforce the Marine Legation Guard
. Strauss promptly dispatched Albany from Shanghai to Qinhuangdao. Albany
landed 100 Sailors and Marines that marched overland to reinforce the U.S.
garrison at Beijing. Strauss then sailed from Manila on board Huron with two
companies of Marines embarked.
Huron sailor
A Huron Sailor takes advantage of Liberty Call in China during the 1920s.
Schurman requested an additional 375 soldiers from the Philippines, to raise
the Army’s northern China garrison from the 15th Infantry Regiment to its
authorized strength. Secretary of State Charles E. Hughes recommended
against the additional reinforcements, largely because of Congressional
opposition to weakening the garrison in the Philippines. Schurman countered
by recommending the temporary augmentation of the soldiers with the Marines
from Huron into a composite battalion. Strauss agreed and sent the Marines
from Huron by tug to Tagu and thence to Tianjin. The fighting between the
Chinese troops moved past the area, and stragglers did not stop to loot
Beijing or Tianjin. The State Department opposed the further expansion of
the forces in North China, explaining that the presence of the garrisons
denoted U.S. resolve, but also noting the vulnerability of a thousand
soldiers and Marines against tens of thousands of warlord troops. The men
from Albany and Huron returned to their ships by the end of May. Huron
reached Hankow (Wuhan) at one point in 1923.
NH 84937
The Bluejacket Battalion from Huron (CA-9) passes in review before Maj. Gen.
Leonard Wood, USAR, and Adm. Joseph Strauss, Commander in Chief Asiatic
Fleet, during the Manila Carnival, Philippines, February 1922. Wood is a
recipient of the Medal of Honor and Governor General of the Philippines. (U.
S. Navy Photograph NH 84937, Naval History & Heritage Command)
An earthquake devastated the central Honshū area of Japan at 1158 on 1
September 1923. The earth split along the Sagami Trough fault, in the Kantō
plain about 50 miles south of Tōkyō, sending shock waves that toppled
buildings across Tōkyō and Yokohama. A tsunami reaching an estimated
height of 33 feet at places smashed into the coast. A vast cloud of choking
dust covered the area as thousands of buildings collapsed. Stoves and
braziers overturned, igniting rice-paper screens and straw mats that spread
fires among wooden and paper buildings. People fled the ensuing inferno
toward the Sumida River, but the flames set wooden bridges ablaze. Other
people fled into Tōkyō Bay, but nearly 100,000 tons of burning Imperial
Japanese Navy fuel poured from burst storage tanks at the naval station at
Yokosuka into the water. Rumors circulated of looting by Chinese and Korean
residents and by leftists seeking anarchy. The government proclaimed martial
law, and mobs armed with clubs and spears and supported by soldiers
murdered impoverished Japanese (suspected of leftist sympathies) and
foreigners and people who spoke Japanese with accents. Earthquake
aftershocks added to the disaster, known as the "Great Kantō Earthquake,"
which killed an estimated 142,800 people and rendered another 1.9 million
homeless.
International aid agencies assisted victims of the Kantō Earthquake. Jack
Morgan, son of U.S. financier J. Pierpont Morgan, sponsored a $150 million
loan program to support reconstruction efforts. The House of Morgan
dispatched the firm’s partner Thomas Lamont to assess the damage.
Additional foreign aid included a £25 million loan from the British firm of
Morgan Grenfell. The distribution of this aid required tremendous resources
, and included the American Relief Expedition.
Adm. Edwin A. Anderson, Jr., commanded the expedition and broke his flag in
Huron. The flagship sailed from Yāntái on 3 September, and on 7 September
arrived at Yokohama. The admiral held a conference on board Huron with all
of the commanding officers of the naval and merchant ships in the harbor.
Capt. Clark D. Stearns commanded the Advance Base, which assumed general
charge of all of the relief work connected with Americans residing or
traveling in Japan overtaken by the disaster. Stearns and his men controlled
the initial distribution of supplies furnished by the Asiatic Fleet. Lt.
Col. Ellis B. Miller, USMC, served as Stearns’ Chief of Staff, and Lt.
Comdr. Earl W. Spencer, Jr., worked with the American nationals trapped in
Japan. The expedition issued Order No. 1, directing that “Initiative is
desired on part of all officers,” and dispatched a group to each of the two
principally stricken cities.
Capt. Gatewood S. Lincoln commanded the Tōkyō Group. Lincoln and his staff
contacted organizations and groups conducting relief of Americans ashore,
and established first aid stations, hospitals, refugee camps, and soup
kitchens. Lt. Comdr. Joel W. Bunkley commanded the Yokohama Group that
carried out similar operations. Huron landed 12 officers and 264 enlisted
men that formed the primary shore party that initially worked in the
Yokohama Group.
The shore parties turned over the bulk of the available medical supplies to
Japanese officials. They also furnished some to international humanitarian
relief workers, to the U.S. Embassy in Tōkyō, and to the Relief Committee
at Kōbe. The Sailors and Marines also organized and deployed to a Kōbe
field hospital consisting of five medical officers, a dental officer, and
seven hospital corpsmen, together with tents and equipment.
The expedition promulgated strict uniform standards to avoid incidents with
the Japanese or with other countries that landed people to aid the victims.
Officers wore uniforms identifying them as “American Naval or Marine
officers.” Navy enlisted orderlies wore white with belts, and Marine
orderlies served in khaki with belts. Beach Guards wore white with leggings
and belts and carried night sticks. All other men wore whites or khakis as
required, but enlisted men wore dungarees during working parties, but with U
.S. Navy or U.S. Marine Corps stenciled for identification.
Huron usually signaled the Tōkyō Group via destroyer Stewart (DD-224),
which relayed the flagship’s communications, and via other destroyers as
available to the Yokohama Group. Lincoln and Bunkley controlled their
respective groups’ signal lines from shore to city. Pekin (Beijing) Radio
rendered excellent service to the expedition, and received the flagship’s
arc over a distance of approximately 1,200 miles, despite atmospheric
problems caused by the typhoon season. The volume of traffic proved
burdensome and for several days the ship received messages totaling 8,000 to
10,000 words daily. The Washington Naval Conference further restricted
communications, and the Beijing station could not forward press dispatches.
In addition, the Los Baños distant control station in the Philippines
could not read the flagship’s signals. The difficulties of maintaining
local communications amidst the devastated infrastructure led to extensive
use of visual signals when practicable.
United States Ambassador in Japan Cyrus E. Woods subsequently cabled: “I
have been informed by the Foreign Office that food emergency has been met.
Only problem remaining is question of distribution. This the Japanese with
their organizing ability and their ability to recover from shock desire to
handle themselves. It will gratify the American people to know that the
prompt action of Admiral Anderson has had much to do with this. American
Navy’s assistance thoroughly appreciated by the men in the street as well
as the Japanese government. I wish to emphasize that in this critical
emergency the first assistance from the outside world since the catastrophe
was brought by our Asiatic Fleet.” Japanese Ambassador to the U.S. Hanihara
Masanao later expressed his gratitude for Anderson’s “unflagging zeal and
efficiency” that led to the “prompt and gallant assistance” that enabled
the situation to be brought “well under control in a short time.”
Additional ships that participated in the relief efforts included the 38th,
less Borie (DD-215), and 45th Destroyer Divisions, destroyer tender Black
Hawk (AD-9), General Alava, oiler Pecos (AO-6), and Army transports Meigs
and Merritt. Japanese Prime Minister Adm. Yamamoto Gonnohyōe received Adm.
Anderson on 20 September. Huron sailed from Japanese waters on 21 September,
and on 25 September reached Shanghai.
As the New Year of 1925 began, the Asiatic Fleet reported upon the
inadequate communications facilities on board Huron, which rendered her
unsatisfactory as a fleet flagship. Light cruiser Memphis (CL-13) relieved
Pittsburgh (CA-4) on the European Station, enabling the latter to complete
an overhaul at the New York Navy Yard. Pittsburgh subsequently relieved
Huron. Pittsburgh proved a propitious relief because of her (relatively)
spacious flag accommodations. In addition, the ship normally embarked up to
75 Marines.
Ordered home, Huron departed Manila on the last day of 1926 and arrived at
the Puget Sound Navy Yard on 3 March 1927. She was decommissioned on 17 June
1927, and remained in reserve until struck from the Navy list on 15
November 1929. On 5 February 1930, the Navy awarded $69,110.60 for the sale
of Huron, in accordance with the provisions of the London Treaty for the
limitation and reduction of naval armament, for scrapping to Abe Goldberg
and Co., Seattle, Wash.
Rewritten and expanded by Mark L. Evans
26 March 2015
Published: Wed Jan 10 12:01:05 EST 2018
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n*****8
发帖数: 1
76
South Dakota (1908–1920)
Huron (1920–1929)
Namesake:
State of South Dakota
City of Huron, South Dakota
Ordered: 7 June 1900
Awarded: 10 January 1901
Builder: Union Iron Works, San Francisco, California
Cost: $3,750,000 (contract price of hull and machinery)
Laid down: 30 September 1902
Launched: 21 July 1904
Sponsored by: Miss F. Pardee
Commissioned: 27 January 1908
Decommissioned: 17 June 1927
Renamed: Huron, 7 June 1920
Reclassified: CA-9, 17 July 1920
Struck: 13 November 1929
Identification:
Hull symbol: ACR-9
Hull symbol: CA-9
Fate: sold for scrap, 11 February 1930, in accordance with the provisions
of the London Naval Treaty
Status: subsequently sold to the Powell River Co., British Columbia,
Canada to be used as a breakwater
General characteristics (as built)
Class and type: Pennsylvania-class armored cruiser
Displacement:
13,680 long tons (13,900 t) (standard)
15,138 long tons (15,381 t) (full load)
Length:
503 ft 11 in (153.59 m) oa
502 ft (153 m) pp
Beam: 69 ft 6 in (21.18 m)
Draft: 24 ft 1 in (7.34 m) (mean)
Installed power:
16 × Babcock & Wilcox boilers
23,000 ihp (17,000 kW)
Propulsion:
2 × vertical triple expansion reciprocating engines
2 × screws
Speed:
22 kn (41 km/h; 25 mph)
22.15 kn (41.02 km/h; 25.49 mph) (Speed on Trials)
Complement: 80 officers 745 enlisted 64 Marines
Armament:
4 × 8 in (203 mm)/40 caliber Mark 5 breech-loading (BL) rifles(2×2)
14 × 6 in (152 mm)/50 cal Mark 6 BL rifles
18 × 3 in (76 mm)/50 cal rapid-fire guns
12 × 3-pounder (47 mm (1.9 in)) Driggs-Schroeder guns
2 × 1-pounder (37 mm (1.5 in)) Driggs-Schroeder saluting guns
2 × 18 inch (450 mm) torpedo tubes
Armor:
Belt: 6 in (150 mm) (top & waterline)
5 in (130 mm) (bottom)
Deck: 1 1⁄2 in (38 mm)- 6 in (amidships)
4 in (100 mm) (forward & aft)
Barbettes: 6 in
Turrets: 6 - 6 1⁄2 in (170 mm)
Conning Tower: 9 in (230 mm)
General characteristics (Pre-1911 Refit)[1]
Armament:
4 × 8 in/45 cal Mark 6 BL rifles (2×2)
14 × 6 in/50 cal Mark 6 BL rifles
18 × 3 in/50 cal rapid-fire guns
4 × 3-pounder (47 mm) Driggs-Schroeder saluting guns
2 × 18 in torpedo tubes
General characteristics (Pre-1921 Refit)[2]
Armament:
4 × 8 in/45 caliber Mark 6 BL rifles (2×2)
14 × 6 in/50 Mark 6 caliber BL rifles
10 × 3 in/50 caliber rapid-fire guns
2 × 3 in/50 caliber anti-aircraft guns
4 × 3-pounder (47 mm) Driggs-Schroeder saluting guns
2 × 18 in torpedo tubes
n*****8
发帖数: 1
77
Huron reached Hankow (Wuhan) at one point in 1923.
n*****8
发帖数: 1
78
万吨装甲巡洋舰1923年到汉口港。
n*****8
发帖数: 1
79
The Armoured Cruiser Endymion sailed as far as Hankou in 1902 apparently
finding no barriers that would prevent the a Canopus class battleship from
following the same route. In addition both the Canopus class and Centurion
class were designed to operate on Chinese rivers.
n*****8
发帖数: 1
80
Canopus-class battleship
Operators: Royal Navy
Preceded by: Majestic class
Succeeded by: Formidable class
Built: 1896–1902
In commission: 1899–1919
Completed: 6
Lost: 2
Retired: 4
General characteristics
Displacement: 14,300 long tons (14,500 t)
Length: 421 ft 6 in (128.5 m)
Beam: 74 ft (22.6 m)
Draught: 26 ft (7.9 m)
Installed power:
water tube boilers
13,500 ihp (10,100 kW)
Propulsion:
2 shafts
2 vertical triple expansion steam engines
Speed: 18 knots (33 km/h)
Complement: 682
Armament:
2 × 2 BL 12 in (305 mm) 35-caliber Mk VIII guns
12 × QF 6 in (152 mm) 40-caliber guns
10 × 12-pounder 76 mm (3.0 in) quick-firing guns
6 × 3-pounder guns
4 × 18 in (460 mm) torpedo tubes
Armour:
Belt 6 in (152 mm)
Bulkheads: 6–10 in (152–254 mm)
Barbettes: 12 in
Turrets: 8 in (203 mm)
Casemates: 6 in
Conning tower: 12 in
Decks: 1–2 in (25–51 mm)
相关主题
以前武汉,把自己叫中国的芝加哥京沪高铁“第一桥”大胜关长江大桥通车
1910年的武汉有多牛老毛还是湖南人的血性
中铁大桥局承建的武汉第八座长江大桥开工中国的水路客运为什么那么弱?
n*****8
发帖数: 1
81
The visit of HMS Endymion to Hankow is one of the best examples of the use
of first-class cruisers on the Chinese rivers:
Endymion is the heaviest man-of-war that has ever been to Hankow... and I
think the ship’s presence had a good effect. We found no difficulties of
navigation, and you could take your flagship [Canopus class battleship HMS
Glory] up without risk. I have a mass of statistics about the forts, which I
will condense shortly, also I have had taken a number of photographs –
these must go down to Shanghai to be enlarged...73
The visit of a major combatant like Endymion to a city so far upriver,
indicating that the China Squadron was capable of, and prepared for
operations hundreds of miles up the Yangtze was of great significance.74
Endymion herself was a well-known vessel since she had taken part in the
suppressing of the Boxer uprising a short time before, and the psychological
impact of seeing a reasonably large cruiser (some 7,700 tons in the case of
the Edgar class) so far upriver should not be underestimated.75
n*****8
发帖数: 1
82
Endymion had a length of 387 feet 6 inches (118.11 m) long overall and 360
feet (109.73 m) between perpendiculars, with a beam of 60 feet (18.29 m) and
a draught of 23 feet 9 inches (7.24 m). She displaced 7,350 long tons (7,
470 t).[1] Armament consisted of two 9.2 inch guns, on the ships centreline,
backed up by ten six-inch guns, of which four were in casemates on the main
deck and the remainder behind open shields. Twelve 6-pounder and four 3-
pounder guns provided anti-torpedo-boat defences, while four 18 inch torpedo
tubes were fitted.[1]
The Edgars were protected cruisers, with an arched, armoured deck 5–3
inches (127–76 mm) thick at about waterline level. The casemate armour was
6 inches (152 mm) thick, with 3 inches (76 mm) thick shields for the 9.2
inch guns and 10 inches (254 mm) armour on the ship's conning tower.[1][2]
It contained four double-ended cylindrical Fairfields boilers feeding steam
at 150 pounds per square inch (1,000 kPa) to 2 three-cylinder triple
expansion engines,[3] which drove two shafts. This gave 12,000 indicated
horsepower (8,900 kW) under forced draught, giving a speed of 20 knots (37
km/h; 23 mph).[1]
n*****8
发帖数: 1
83
1900年8000吨重巡上汉口。
n*****8
发帖数: 1
84
We found no difficulties of
navigation, and you could take your flagship [Canopus class battleship HMS
Glory] up without risk.
战列舰上汉口也没任何问题
n*****8
发帖数: 1
85
The ships of the Canopus class were 390 feet 3.5 inches (118.961 m) long
between perpendiculars and 421 ft 6 in (128.47 m) long overall, with a beam
of 74 ft (23 m). They had a draft of 26 ft 2 in (7.98 m) normally and up to
30 feet (9.1 m) fully loaded. They displaced 13,150 long tons (13,360 t)
normally and up to 14,300 long tons (14,500 t) at full load. The ships were
fitted with two masts, each with one fighting top carrying several of the
light guns and one searchlight. Four other searchlights were mounted on the
bridges.[5][6]
Their crew numbered 682 officers and ratings on completion, but the number
varied throughout the ships' careers. For example, by 1904, Goliath's crew
had increased to 737 and Albion had a crew of 752, which included an admiral
's staff. While serving as a gunnery training ship in 1912, Vengeance had a
crew of just 400, while Albion was reduced to 371 officers and sailors as a
guard ship in 1916. Each ship carried a number of small boats, including two
steam pinnaces and one sail pinnace, one steam launch, three cutters, one
galley, one whaler, three gigs, two dinghies, and one raft.[7]
n*****8
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86
Canopus class战列舰和美国的装甲巡洋舰south dakota排水量差不多。正常吃水都在7
-8米左右。
n*****8
发帖数: 1
87
In May of 1903 a British battleship visited Hankow, the first to ascend the
Yangtse so far.
https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/2186801.pdf
n*****8
发帖数: 1
88
1903年5月一艘英国战列舰到达汉口。

the

【在 n*****8 的大作中提到】
: In May of 1903 a British battleship visited Hankow, the first to ascend the
: Yangtse so far.
: https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/2186801.pdf

n*****8
发帖数: 1
89
也就是说,1949年前英美的万吨(满载可到15000吨)级别的航母,战列舰,重巡都在
长江汛期到过武汉。
n*****8
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90
Yangtze River
RIVER, CHINA
WRITTEN BY: Aleksandr Pavlovich Muranov Charles E. Greer
See Article History
Alternative Titles: Ch’ang Chiang, Chang Jiang, Da Jiang
Yangtze River, Chinese (Pinyin) Chang Jiang or (Wade-Giles romanization) Ch
’ang Chiang, longest river in both China and Asia and third longest river
in the world, with a length of 3,915 miles (6,300 kilometres). Its basin,
extending for some 2,000 miles (3,200 km) from west to east and for more
than 600 miles (1,000 km) from north to south, drains an area of 698,265
square miles (1,808,500 square km). From its source on the Plateau of Tibet
to its mouth on the East China Sea, the river traverses or serves as the
border between 10 provinces or regions. More than three-fourths of the river
’s course runs through mountains. The Yangtze has eight principal
tributaries. On its left bank, from source to mouth, these are the Yalung,
Min, Jialing, and Han rivers; those on the right bank include the Wu, Yuan,
Xiang, and Gan rivers.
The Huang He basin and the Yangtze River basin and their drainage networks.
Bend in the upper Yangtze River (Chang Jiang), Yunnan province, southwestern
China.
The Huang He basin and the Yangtze River basin and their drainage networks.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Bend in the upper Yangtze River (Chang Jiang), Yunnan province, southwestern
China.
© itasun/iStock.com
The name Yangtze—derived from the name of the ancient fiefdom of Yang—has
been applied to the river mainly by those in the West. Chang Jiang (“Long
River”) is the name used in China, although it also is called Da Jiang (“
Great River”) or, simply, Jiang (“[The] River”). The Yangtze is the most
important river of China. It is the country’s principal waterway, and its
basin is China’s great granary and contains nearly one-third of the
national population.
Physical Features
The upper course
The upper course of the Yangtze flows across the Plateau of Tibet and
descends through deep valleys in the mountains east of the plateau, emerging
onto the Yunnan-Guizhou (Yungui) Plateau. Summers there are warm, and the
winters are cold. The source of the Yangtze is the Ulan Moron (Wulanmulun)
River, which originates in glacial meltwaters on the slopes of the Tanggula
Mountains in southern Qinghai province on the border with the Tibet
Autonomous Region. From the confluence of this stream with several others,
the river flows generally easterly through a shallow, spacious valley, the
bottom of which is studded with lakes and small reservoirs. This part of its
course lies in the higher regions of the Tibetan highlands.
First bend of the Yangtze River, Yunnan province, China.
First bend of the Yangtze River, Yunnan province, China.
Bruno Morandi—age fotostock/Imagestate
The river’s character changes sharply upon reaching the eastern limits of
the highlands. There the river—which in this stretch is called the Jinsha—
descends from a high elevation, winding its way south of the high Bayan Har
Mountains and forming a narrow valley up to 2 miles (3 km) in depth.
Individual mountain peaks exceed elevations of 16,000 feet (4,900 metres)
above sea level and are crowned with glaciers and perpetual snow. The steep,
rocky slopes are cut with gorges and deep valleys. For several hundred
miles the Yangtze flows in a southeasterly direction, before turning south
to flow downward in rushing rapids. For a considerable distance the river
flows through passes that are so steep that no room is left even for a
narrow path. Villages, which are rarely found, are located high above the
river. In this region the Yangtze runs close and parallel to both the Mekong
and Salween rivers; all three rivers are within 15 to 30 miles (25 to 50 km
) of one another and continue to flow in mutual proximity for a distance of
more than 250 miles (400 km).
North of latitude 26° N these great rivers diverge, and the Yangtze turns
east to pass through a winding valley with steep slopes. The river receives
the waters of many tributaries, among which the Yalong River is the largest
and contributes the most water. The Yangtze then widens to between 1,000 and
1,300 feet (300 and 400 metres), reaching depths often exceeding 30 feet (9
metres). In narrower gorges the water width decreases by almost half, but
the depth increases sharply.
Near the end of the upstream part of its course, the Yangtze descends to an
elevation of 1,000 feet above sea level. Thus, over the first 1,600 miles (2
,600 km) of its length, the river has fallen more than 17,000 feet (5,200
metres), or an average of more than 10 feet per mile (2 metres per km) of
its course. In the mountains, however, there is a substantial stretch where
the fall of the river is considerably greater.
The middle course
The middle course of the Yangtze stretches for about 630 miles (1,010 km)
between the cities of Yibin in Sichuan province and Yichang in Hubei
province. The climate is characterized by hot summers and relatively mild
winters, as the high mountains to the west protect the region from the cold
north and west winds. Annual precipitation measures between 40 and 60 inches
(1,000 to 1,500 mm), a large part of it occurring in summer; the growing
season lasts for more than six months. In most of this segment, the river
crosses hilly Sichuan province, where the lower mountains and plateaus
connect the highlands of southwestern China with the Qin (Tsinling)
Mountains lying between the Yangtze and Huang He (Yellow River) basins.
Located in this area is Chongqing, a major industrial centre and river port.
The river’s width there is from about 1,000 to 1,600 feet (300 to 500
metres), and the depth in places exceeds 30 feet. The current is swift; the
banks often are high and steep. The river falls some 820 feet (250 metres)
in Sichuan, more than a foot per mile (0.2 metre per km) of flow.
As the Yangtze flows through eastern Sichuan and into western Hubei, it
traverses for a distance of 125 miles (200 km) the famous Three Gorges
region before debouching onto the plains to the east. The gorges have steep,
sheer slopes composed mainly of thick limestone rocks. Prior to the
completion of the Three Gorges Dam in 2006, they rose some 1,300 to 2,000
feet (400 to 600 metres) above the river, although with the creation of the
reservoir behind the dam their height has been diminished fairly
significantly. Nonetheless, they still present the appearance of fantastic
towers, pillars, or spears. Qutang, the first gorge—about 5 miles (8 km)
long—is the shortest; prior to its inundation, the river there was
considered the most dangerous for navigation, being extremely narrow with
many rapids and eddies. Wu, the second gorge, stretches for about 30 miles (
50 km); it is a narrow, steep corridor with almost vertical walls of heights
up to 1,600 or even 2,000 feet above the river. The last gorge, Xiling, is
located upstream of Yichang and extends for a distance of 21 miles; in
places limestone cliffs rise directly out of the water, although with the
rise of the reservoir to much lower heights than before. The gorges are
rocky, and the walls are speckled with cracks, niches, and indentations.
Even before the river was inundated, its depth in the gorges was
considerable, increasing to between 500 and 600 feet (150 and 180 metres)
and giving the Yangtze the greatest depths of any river in the world.
Xiling Gorge, in the Three Gorges section of the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang)
, as it appeared before completion of the Three Gorges Dam, Hubei province,
China.
Xiling Gorge, in the Three Gorges section of the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang)
, as it appeared before completion of the Three Gorges Dam, Hubei province,
China.
© Wolfgang Kaehler
The lower course
The lower part of the Yangtze basin is centred on the extensive lowland
plains of east-central China. The region experiences a temperate climate
with warm springs, hot summers, cool autumns, and relatively cold winters
for the latitude. Monsoons (seasonally changing winds) dominate the weather
of the region, and in the summer and autumn typhoons occur periodically. As
the Yangtze exits from the Three Gorges Dam, near Yichang, it enters a
complex system of lakes, marshes, and multiple river channels developed on
the plains of Hunan and Hubei provinces. This vast region, lying at
elevations below 165 feet (50 metres), has served as a natural flood-
regulation basin in recent geologic history. Three main tributaries (the
Yuan, Xiang, and Han rivers) and many smaller ones join the Yangtze in this
region, which also is where the current slows as the river reaches the plain
. Water levels fluctuate considerably between the flood and low-flow seasons
. In addition, the presence of a number of large lakes, including Dongting
Lake and Lakes Hong and Liangzi, also causes considerable fluctuations in
water volume. The total area of the lakes, at average water levels, is some
6,600 square miles (17,100 square km). The lakes are of national economic
significance, mainly as fisheries.
At the edge of the Lake Liangzi plain the Yangtze widens markedly, the
course of its stream wandering in the form of a large loop. The width of the
river is up to 2,600 feet (800 metres), the depth is more than 100 feet (30
metres), and the water current flows at a rate of about 3.5 feet (1 metre)
per second. The banks are built up for protection from floods. In the
southern part of the plain lies Dongting Lake, which once was the largest
freshwater lake in China but now has been reduced in area by silting and
land reclamation; it shares four tributaries and two canals with the Yangtze
, whose flow it serves to regulate. The surrounding area, agricultural and
studded with lakes, is China’s most important rice-producing region.
At the centre of the lakes region is the large metropolis of Wuhan. Situated
on the Yangtze near the mouth of the Han River, it was formed in 1950 by
the merger of the cities of Hanyang and Hankou on the left bank and Wuchang
on the right bank and has become one of China’s most important
metallurgical-industry centres and river ports. Farther east the Yangtze
flows into a narrowing, picturesque valley and then passes onto the plain of
Jiangxi province, which contains Lake Poyang, China’s largest natural
freshwater lake. The lake, with an average area of about 1,385 square miles
(3,585 square km), receives the Kan River tributary and, in turn, is linked
to the Yangtze by a wide tributary. The river then turns to the northeast,
passes through a widening valley, and flows out onto the southern North
China Plain. The width of the river increases at this point to between 3,000
and 6,000 feet (900 and 1,800 metres), and the depth in places approaches
100 feet. In this region there are a number of large cities, including
Anqing, Wuhu, and Nanjing. The Grand Canal (Da Yunhe), which, with a length
of nearly 1,100 miles (1,800 km), is one of the longest canals in the world;
it crosses the Yangtze in the vicinity of the city of Zhenjiang.
The Yangtze delta
The Yangtze delta, which begins beyond Zhenjiang, consists of a large number
of branches, tributaries, lakes, ancient riverbeds, and marshes that are
connected with the main channel. During major floods the delta area is
completely submerged. Lake Tai, with an area of about 930 square miles (2,
410 square km), is notable as the largest of the many lakes in the delta.
The width of the Yangtze in the delta, as far as the city of Jiangyin,
ranges from less than 1 mile to almost 2 miles (1.6 to 3.2 km); farther
downstream the channel gradually widens and becomes a large estuary, the
width of which exceeds 50 miles (80 km) near the mouth of the river. Major
cities in the delta include Wuxi, Suzhou, and, at the river’s mouth,
Shanghai.
Before emptying into the sea, the Yangtze divides into two arms that drain
independently into the East China Sea. The left branch has a width of about
3 to 6 miles (5 to 10 km), the right branch of 6 to 15 miles (10 to 25 km).
Between the branches is situated Chongming Island, which was formed over the
centuries by the deposit of alluvium at the mouth of the Yangtze. The depth
of the river in places approaches 100 to 130 feet (30 to 40 metres) but
decreases to only several feet near the sea at the mouth of the river
because of the presence of sandbars.
The section of river from the mouth to 250 miles (400 km) upstream is
subject to the influence of tides. The maximum range of the tides near the
mouth is 13 to 15 feet (4 to 5 metres). The Yangtze delta is rich in mud and
silt and is dominated by fluvial and tidal processes.
The present-day bed of the Yangtze in this area is somewhat above the
elevation of the plain. Thus, to protect the surrounding region from
floodwaters, the banks of the main and other rivers are built up; the total
length of banks on the Yangtze on which levees have been constructed is
about 1,700 miles (2,740 km). Dams also have been built for flood protection
on the shores of several lakes; the Qingjiang Reservoir, for example, built
for this purpose near Dongting Lake, has a design capacity of 194 million
cubic feet (5.5 million cubic metres). The delta is protected from the sea
by two gigantic parallel banks that are faced with stone in most parts.
Geology
In its upper reaches the Yangtze River drains across the Plateau of Tibet,
which is still uplifting as the Indian and Eurasian tectonic plates collide.
The bedrock comprises an assemblage of marine sedimentary, igneous, and
metamorphic rocks. Within intermontane basins, thick deposits of sediments
of Cenozoic age—i.e., less than about 65 million years old—overlie the
bedrock. The Yangtze descends abruptly from the Tibetan Plateau to flow
across deeply eroded mountain plateaus consisting of Paleozoic and Mesozoic
rocks roughly 350 to 150 million years old. In its lower reaches, the
Yangtze River flows across basin fills of Cenozoic material that is about 65
to 25 million years old. These are the result of fluvial sedimentation as
the Yangtze has migrated across its lower basin throughout its Cenozoic
history.
Hydrology
The Yangtze basin is comparatively well irrigated; the average yearly
rainfall amounts to about 43 inches (1,100 mm). Most of the precipitation is
brought by the monsoon winds and falls primarily as rain in the summer
months. In the mountainous part of the basin the precipitation is mainly
snow. Floods, which result from the monsoon rains in the middle and lower
parts of the basin, usually begin in March or April and can occur at any
time during the next eight months. In May the water level decreases somewhat
but then sharply increases again, continuing to rise until August, when it
reaches its highest level. After that the water level gradually falls to the
premonsoon levels, the decrease continuing through the autumn and most of
the winter until February, when the lowest annual level is reached.
The annual range of water-level fluctuations is considerable—an average of
about 65 feet (20 metres)—with 26 to 35 feet (8 to 11 metres) during years
of low water. Downstream from the Three Gorges Dam the impact of the water-
level variation is lessened by the dam itself and by the regulating effect
of the lakes. In the delta tides exert the greatest influence on the water
level. Near the city of Wusong the daily tidal range is 15 feet (4.5 metres)
, and the yearly range is 20 feet (6 metres).
A breakdown of the water volume delivered to the mouth of the Yangtze shows
that the highland part of the basin contributes 10 percent of the flow,
while the remainder of the water in the river is contributed by the middle
and downstream parts of the basin, with runoff from the basins of Dongting
Lake and Lake Poyang being responsible for about two-fifths of the volume.
The Yangtze carries a tremendous volume of water. In the upstream areas the
average flow exceeds 70,000 cubic feet (1,980 cubic metres) per second,
which is more than the discharge rate of the second longest river in China,
the Huang He, at its mouth. After the inflow from the first large tributary
—the Yalong River—the volume in the Yangtze increases sharply, approaching
an average of 194,000 cubic feet (5,500 cubic metres) per second. Farther
downstream the Yangtze admits many tributaries, and the volume gradually
increases. Prior to the completion of the Three Gorges Dam, it reached 529,
000 cubic feet (15,000 cubic metres) per second at the end of the Three
Gorges area, 847,000 cubic feet (24,000 cubic metres) per second at Wuhan,
and some 1,100,000 cubic feet (31,100 cubic metres) per second at its mouth;
the total volume entering the sea annually was roughly 235 cubic miles (979
cubic km), ranking it third in volume of flow behind the Amazon and Congo
rivers. Those numbers have decreased somewhat since the completion of the
dam in 2006. The suspended sediment load at the mouth of the Yangtze is some
478 million tons per year, one of the highest sediment loads of any river
in the world.
During the seasonal rains the Yangtze widely floods the lower areas, and the
maximum volume of water entering the sea can be more than double the
average flow. Likewise, the flow decreases during the dry season, sometimes
to about one-fourth the average flow. In spite of the fact that the
discharge volume of the Yangtze vastly exceeds that of the Huang He, the
Yangtze is significantly less silty than the Huang He. This is because much
of the Huang He’s course is over the Loess Plateau with its easily erodible
loess (wind-deposited soil), whereas the Yangtze flows over little loess,
and its floodplains are more vegetated and less erodible. In the mountainous
part of the basin, particularly in the Plateau of Tibet, the waters of the
Yangtze contain little silt.
Downstream, however, the waters become muddy and acquire a coffee colour. It
is estimated that the Yangtze annually carries between 280 million and 300
million tons of alluvium to its mouth, depositing an estimated 150 million
to 200 million tons on the river bottom in addition. Thus, the total amount
of suspended material carried or deposited is between 430 million and 500
million tons per year, one of the highest sediment loads of any river in the
world. As a result of the depositing of alluvium at the river’s mouth, the
delta extends into the sea an average of one mile every hundred years.
During the period of monsoon rains, the Yangtze and its tributaries formerly
spilled over, creating extensive floods. If the floods in the main channel
coincided with flooding in one or more of the major tributaries, powerful,
destructive flood waves could result, an occurrence that happened repeatedly
in the history of China. One of the major objectives of the Three Gorges
project was to control such flooding by the river.
When flooding occurs, it frequently results from the deposit of silt in the
bed of the Yangtze. Upon leaving the mountains and entering the plain, the
current in the Yangtze sharply decreases, and thus the flow cannot continue
to carry the entire amount of silt. As a result, a significant portion is
deposited in the bed, causing the bottom to rise. A similar situation occurs
in many of the Yangtze’s tributaries. Flooding thus presents a great
danger to the inhabitants of the adjacent plains.
Human adaptation to and utilization of the plains of the Yangtze valley have
evolved in the context of such floods. Among the legends and myths handed
down from the earliest historical times are accounts of floods that
submerged vast areas. These are said to have turned the plains into inland
seas, with water remaining in the lowest places for many years at a time.
Catastrophic floods have occurred throughout recorded history. During the
period from 206 BCE to 1960 CE, China experienced more than 1,030 major
floods. Especially extensive flooding has occurred on the Yangtze more than
50 times and on the tributary Han River more than 30 times. On the average,
the Yangtze basin has been the scene of catastrophic flooding every 50 to 55
years.
Widespread flooding also may take place at shorter intervals. This has been
the case since the mid-19th century, as the Yangtze basin has flooded in
1870, 1896, 1931, 1949, and 1954. Of these, the 1931 and 1954 floods were
national disasters. The 1931 flood resulted from heavy, continuous monsoon
rains that covered most of the middle and lower parts of the basin. During
May and June, six huge flood waves swept down the river, destroying the
protecting dams and levees in two dozen places and flooding more than 35,000
square miles (90,000 square km) of land; 40 million people were rendered
homeless or otherwise suffered. Many population centres, including Nanjing
and the Wuhan conurbation, were underwater. In Wuhan the water remained for
more than four months, the depth exceeding 6 feet (1.8 metres) and in places
more than 20 feet (6 metres). In the summer of 1954 another powerful flood
occurred, again the result of continued monsoon rains. The water level
sharply increased and at times exceeded the 1931 flood levels by almost 5
feet (1.5 metres). Effective flood-control measures developed since the
1930s, however, averted many of the potential consequences of the flood.
People
The Yangtze basin contains a significant portion of China’s population, but
distribution is uneven. The highland area of the river’s upper reaches is
among the most sparsely settled regions in China, while the Yangtze delta
has the country’s highest population density. Outside the delta the
greatest concentrations of people are in the plains that adjoin the banks of
the river and its tributaries in the middle and lower basins, especially in
the vicinity of the cities of Chengdu, Chongqing, Wuhan, and Nanjing. These
cities are among the largest in China, and Shanghai is the country’s most
populous.
In the highlands of the upper basin, the population consists mainly of
ethnic Tibetans engaged in traditional animal husbandry and the cultivation
of such hardy grains as barley and rye. The population of the Yunnan-Guizhou
Plateau is a mixture of Chinese (Han) agriculturalists and numerous ethnic
minorities who combine some farming with herding and hunting. The population
of the middle and lower basins becomes progressively more Chinese, although
, especially in the middle basin, many other national minorities are
represented.
Economy
The economy of much of the Yangtze basin is focused largely on agricultural
production, although inland cities such as Wuhan and Chongqing and the
coastal region centred on Shanghai are among China’s most important
industrial centres. The lower basin and the delta are among the most
economically developed areas in the country. Mineral resources include
reserves of iron ore near Wuhan and Nanjing and such deposits as coal,
copper, phosphorus, gold, oil, and natural gas in Sichuan province.
Agriculture
The Yangtze basin contributes nearly half of China’s crop production,
including more than two-thirds of the total volume of rice. Among the other
crops grown are cotton, wheat, barley, corn (maize), beans, and hemp. Of
note is eastern Sichuan province, which its people call the “Land of Plenty
.” The soil there is extremely fertile, and the climatic conditions are
highly favourable to agriculture. The mild climate also facilitates
sericulture, the production of raw silk by raising silkworms. Cultivation is
most intensive, however, in the lower basin and delta, where the natural
conditions are exceptionally favourable: the growing period ranges from 8 to
11 months, and in some areas two or three crops can be harvested annually.
The extensive territory under cultivation in the Yangtze basin—especially
for rice—requires man-made irrigation facilities. Even in the areas of
highest precipitation, severe droughts are experienced, resulting in crop
losses. This is explained by the extremely irregular distribution of
precipitation over the course of the year, with 60 to 80 percent falling in
the summer. Rainless periods sometimes last for six to eight weeks.
Irrigation has existed in the Yangtze basin since ancient times, but many
modern irrigation projects have been undertaken, the largest being the Three
Gorges project.
Fisheries
The Yangtze River and its associated tributaries and lakes abound with fish.
The fishing trade is widely developed and is a major livelihood for much of
the population of the region. Hundreds of species are found in Chinese
rivers, the majority of which inhabit the Yangtze and its tributaries. Some
30 species are of economic significance, especially carp, bream, Chinese
perch, gapers (a species of large burrowing clam), and lamprey; the most
valuable economically are white and black amur (large members of the carp
family), flatfish, and spotted flatfish. Sturgeon also are important, the
gorges being a favourite spawning area. Farther downstream great amounts of
roe can be found, and these are collected and distributed throughout the
country for artificial cultivation. The artificial cultivation of fish for
trade involves mainly white and black amur, flatfish, and carp.
Navigation
The Yangtze is the principal navigable waterway of China. Along the river
for 1,700 miles (2,700 km) there is intensive cargo and passenger traffic.
The river serves as a continuation of the sea routes, binding the inland and
coastal ports together with other major cities into a transportation
network in which Nanjing, Wuhan, and Chongqing play the leading roles.
Motorized junks, other powered vessels, and a small number of sail craft are
widely used for transporting cargo. Because of the ship locks at the Three
Gorges Dam, large ships of up to 10,000 tons can travel as far upriver as
Chongqing. Water routes in the Yangtze basin total about 35,000 miles (56,
300 km). The Yangtze is joined to navigable stretches of the Huang He and
the Huai, Wei, and Hai rivers by the Grand Canal, which is further connected
with the seaports of Hangzhou and Tianjin.
Of the several projects undertaken since the 1950s to improve navigation
through the gorges region, none has matched the massive Three Gorges Dam
project. Large projects have been undertaken to strengthen and enlarge the
levee system. In addition, bridges have been built across the Yangtze at
Wuhan, Chongqing, Nanjing, and other cities, improving north-south transport
links and reducing dependence on ferries.
Hydroelectric power
The resources for the production of energy from the Yangtze are enormous,
although they have not been developed to a large extent. The total potential
power is estimated to be more than 200 million kilowatts, representing
about two-fifths of the total energy potential of all the rivers of China.
Until the Three Gorges Dam project got under way, the most ambitious project
completed was the Gezhouba hydroelectric dam above Yichang, which was the
first structure to block the flow of the Yangtze. Gezhouba was superseded by
the massive Three Gorges Dam project. At the time of the Three Gorges Dam’
s completion in 2006, it was the largest dam structure in the world. It
blocks the Yangtze to create a reservoir that submerged large areas of the
Qutang, Wu, and Xiling gorges for some 375 miles (600 km) upstream. The
hydroelectric component of the project, which became fully operational in
2012, has the capacity to generate approximately 22,500 megawatts of
hydroelectric power. Many tributaries of the Yangtze that have significant
fall and volume—such as the Yalong, Min, and Jialing rivers—and other
rivers that are tributaries of Dongting Lake and Lake Poyang also have
considerable potential.
Human impact on the environment
Environmental degradation in the Yangtze basin has accelerated with
increased economic development since 1950. Pollution levels have risen in
the rivers and lakes, soil erosion in the middle and upper basins caused by
overgrazing and the overcutting of trees has increased silt loads, and land
reclamation has reduced surface areas of lakes and wetlands. However,
nothing has had a greater impact than the Three Gorges project. One of the
greatest objections critics of the project have made is that it floods an
area that is one of the most scenically beautiful in China. Another concern
has been that the changes made to the Yangtze’s regime could adversely
affect several endangered animal species inhabiting the basin, including the
Chinese alligator, the finless porpoise, and the Chinese sturgeon. In
addition, numerous towns and cities have been inundated by the reservoir,
forcing the relocation of some one million people. It is also argued that
the buildup of sediment will cause reservoir levels to rise too high to
contain floods and that the area—which is highly active seismically and
frequently is prone to landslides—could be at increased risk for
catastrophic dam failure. Furthermore, it is feared that the waters
downstream from the dam, now largely free of their silt burden, will tend to
erode surrounding banks rather than build them up and may cause much land
degradation.
History
The Yangtze River basin is one of the longest-inhabited regions in China.
Although much of China’s political history has centred around North China
and the Huang He basin, the Yangtze region always was of great economic
importance to successive dynasties for its agricultural potential. The Grand
Canal was built in order to transport grain from the Yangtze basin to the
great northern capital cities; it is possible that the southernmost portion
of the canal was in use as early as the 4th century BCE, and much of it was
constructed in the 7th century CE.
Over the course of time the Yangtze has served as both a political and a
cultural boundary. The river now demarcates the provinces constituting South
China. The Yangtze also was the focus of many of the imperialist incursions
into China in the 19th century and the first half of the 20th, with
Shanghai at the river’s mouth becoming the main foreign commercial base.
Since 1950 the river and its basin have been the focus of much of China’s
economic modernization.
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n*****8
发帖数: 1
91
幸亏英国100年前测过长江水文数据记入百科全书,不然现在中文的长江水文数据都找
不到了,任凭五毛编造谎言。
w********9
发帖数: 8613
92
那是靠百年级别的大洪水进去的。同年日本趁机侵华。918
汉口都被淹了很深。
1万1千吨
吃水6.6米
https://www.jiemian.com/article/732716.html
n*****8
发帖数: 1
93
North of latitude 26° N these great rivers diverge, and the Yangtze turns
east to pass through a winding valley with steep slopes. The river receives
the waters of many tributaries, among which the Yalong River is the largest
and contributes the most water. The Yangtze then widens to between 1,000 and
1,300 feet (300 and 400 metres), reaching depths often exceeding 30 feet (9
metres). In narrower gorges the water width decreases by almost half, but
the depth increases sharply.
n*****8
发帖数: 1
94
The Yangtze then widens to between 1,000 and 1,300 feet (300 and 400 metres)
, reaching depths often exceeding 30 feet (9 metres). In narrower gorges the
water width decreases by almost half, but the depth increases sharply.
n*****8
发帖数: 1
95
Located in this area is Chongqing, a major industrial centre and river port.
The river’s width there is from about 1,000 to 1,600 feet (300 to 500
metres), and the depth in places exceeds 30 feet. The current is swift; the
banks often are high and steep. The river falls some 820 feet (250 metres)
in Sichuan, more than a foot per mile (0.2 metre per km) of flow.
n*****8
发帖数: 1
96
The river’s width there is from about 1,000 to 1,600 feet (300 to 500
metres), and the depth in places exceeds 30 feet.
n*****8
发帖数: 1
97
The last gorge, Xiling, is located upstream of Yichang and extends for a
distance of 21 miles; in places limestone cliffs rise directly out of the
water, although with the rise of the reservoir to much lower heights than
before. The gorges are rocky, and the walls are speckled with cracks, niches
, and indentations. Even before the river was inundated, its depth in the
gorges was considerable, increasing to between 500 and 600 feet (150 and 180
metres) and giving the Yangtze the greatest depths of any river in the
world.
n*****8
发帖数: 1
98
Even before the river was inundated, its depth in the gorges was
considerable, increasing to between 500 and 600 feet (150 and 180 metres)
and giving the Yangtze the greatest depths of any river in the world.
n*****8
发帖数: 1
99
At the edge of the Lake Liangzi plain the Yangtze widens markedly, the
course of its stream wandering in the form of a large loop. The width of the
river is up to 2,600 feet (800 metres), the depth is more than 100 feet (30
metres), and the water current flows at a rate of about 3.5 feet (1 metre)
per second. The banks are built up for protection from floods. In the
southern part of the plain lies Dongting Lake, which once was the largest
freshwater lake in China but now has been reduced in area by silting and
land reclamation; it shares four tributaries and two canals with the Yangtze
, whose flow it serves to regulate. The surrounding area, agricultural and
studded with lakes, is China’s most important rice-producing region.
At the centre of the lakes region is the large metropolis of Wuhan. Situated
on the Yangtze near the mouth of the Han River, it was formed in 1950 by
the merger of the cities of Hanyang and Hankou on the left bank and Wuchang
on the right bank and has become one of China’s most important
metallurgical-industry centres and river ports.
n*****8
发帖数: 1
100
The width of the river is up to 2,600 feet (800 metres), the depth is more
than 100 feet (30 metres), and the water current flows at a rate of about 3.
5 feet (1 metre) per second.
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n*****8
发帖数: 1
101
武汉非汛期水深超过30米哥没说错吧。长江边长大的老武汉知道的长江的信息是外地人
特别是东北人望尘莫及的。

3.

【在 n*****8 的大作中提到】
: The width of the river is up to 2,600 feet (800 metres), the depth is more
: than 100 feet (30 metres), and the water current flows at a rate of about 3.
: 5 feet (1 metre) per second.

n*****8
发帖数: 1
102
The width of the river increases at this point to between 3,000 and 6,000
feet (900 and 1,800 metres), and the depth in places approaches 100 feet. In
this region there are a number of large cities, including Anqing, Wuhu, and
Nanjing.
n*****8
发帖数: 1
103
The Yangtze delta, which begins beyond Zhenjiang, consists of a large number
of branches, tributaries, lakes, ancient riverbeds, and marshes that are
connected with the main channel. During major floods the delta area is
completely submerged. Lake Tai, with an area of about 930 square miles (2,
410 square km), is notable as the largest of the many lakes in the delta.
The width of the Yangtze in the delta, as far as the city of Jiangyin,
ranges from less than 1 mile to almost 2 miles (1.6 to 3.2 km); farther
downstream the channel gradually widens and becomes a large estuary, the
width of which exceeds 50 miles (80 km) near the mouth of the river. Major
cities in the delta include Wuxi, Suzhou, and, at the river’s mouth,
Shanghai.
Before emptying into the sea, the Yangtze divides into two arms that drain
independently into the East China Sea. The left branch has a width of about
3 to 6 miles (5 to 10 km), the right branch of 6 to 15 miles (10 to 25 km).
Between the branches is situated Chongming Island, which was formed over the
centuries by the deposit of alluvium at the mouth of the Yangtze. The depth
of the river in places approaches 100 to 130 feet (30 to 40 metres) but
decreases to only several feet near the sea at the mouth of the river
because of the presence of sandbars.
n*****8
发帖数: 1
104
The depth of the river in places approaches 100 to 130 feet (30 to 40 metres
) but decreases to only several feet near the sea at the mouth of the river
because of the presence of sandbars.
n*****8
发帖数: 1
105
也就是说,三峡大坝没修前,南水北调没开始前,
长江上游雅砻河段水深9米,江宽300-400米,
长江重庆段水深10米,江宽300-500米,
长江三峡段水深150-180米,江宽很窄,
长江武汉段水深超过30米,江宽800米,
长江南京段水深接近30米,江宽900-1800米,
长江上海崇明岛段水深30-40米,江宽1600-3200米,
但到长江河口海边只有几尺深,因为河口海边泥沙堆积。
w********9
发帖数: 8613
106
https://www.jiemian.com/article/732716.html
1931中国大洪水:汉口变威尼斯,灾害人数8000万 | 历史
《伦敦新闻画报》以在今日看来无比珍贵的图文记述了那场发生于民国时期的滔天洪水。
沈弘 2016/07/07 09:55浏览 20.3W字体:宋
1931年,汉口,水深及腰的市场。
创始于1842年的英国《伦敦新闻画报》是世界上第一份以图像记录为内容主体的新闻周
刊。其以细腻生动的密线木刻版画和石印画,以那个时代的技术条件所能达到的最快速
度,再现世界各地的重大事件。随着印刷水平的提升,《伦敦新闻画报》逐步实现新闻
绘画向新闻摄影的转换,渐渐以摄影照片取代版画。
画报初始就对中华帝国表示密切关注,派驻大量画家兼记者,仅1857年至1901年就向英
国发回了上千张关于中国速写和几十万字的文字报道。这些珍贵的图文资料,大多是现
场的目击报道,属于第一手的原始资料;它们对于历史事件的观点和看法往往是中文史
料中所忽略的片段,它们所报道的一些事件和中国社会生活的细节往往是中文史料中的
盲点;其报道的系统性和连续性也是许多其他中西文历史资料所不能企及的。
《遗失在西方的中国史:〈伦敦新闻画报〉记录的民国1926-1949》(北京时代华文书
局,2016年6月出版)收录了民国时期《伦敦新闻画报》从中国各地发出的报道和拍摄
的照片,保存了一份极其珍贵的历史记忆。以下图文摘自该书,由出版社授权转载。
由于异乎寻常的大暴雨,加上每年一度的雪山融化,中国最近遭受了有史以来受灾面积
最大、淹死人数最多、财产损失最严重、饥荒和传染病的威胁最大的一次洪水灾害,堪
称是民族大灾难。据报道,仅在湖北省就有四百万间房屋被毁,汉口城区有八千人被淹
死。根据最新的估计,因这次洪灾而变得无家可归的总人数高达五千万人,政府还专门
成立了一个救济水灾委员会。8月14日,有报道说在武汉三镇(汉口、汉阳、武昌)已
经有七十万难民;而漫入汉口城的扬子江水位比历史上的最高纪录还要高出10 英寸。
一条更晚的报道(8月21日)说,早先关于汉口洪水会退去的希望落了空,扬子江的水
位又回到了先前高于江边水平面53.5 英寸的最高纪录。据说政府正在考虑要疏散人口
的问题,并且派了几条轮船专门疏散人口和运送难民。8月23日,有报道说汉口的扬子
江水位有所回落。人们希望洪峰已经过去,但是难民们的生活条件变得越来越糟糕,随
着气温的上升,他们所经受的煎熬便愈演愈烈。一位《泰晤士报》记者写道:
假如食品和安全的庇护所不能大批提供的话,还将会有大量的人员死亡。
我们刚刚得到的这些照片是在本月初拍摄的。寄送这些照片的一位本报记者在一封署名
8月1日的信中说:
扬子江的水位已经升到了一个前所未有的高度,江水溢出或冲破了堤岸。淹掉了汉口整
个外国租界,城区的积水深达3~8 英尺。汉口现在堪称是东方的威尼斯,洪灾对于中外
财产所造成的损坏难以估量。舢板(中式手划船)成为街上唯一的交通运输工具。
扬子江汉口段的水位达到了高于江边水平面53.5英寸:从汉口的汇丰银行顶上俯瞰江边
马路,远处是海关大楼。
由于扬子江决堤,中国最近遭受了一次有史以来最严重的洪灾。正如本报8月29日那一
期上刊登的照片所显示的那样,汉口遭受了严重的损失。当时有报道说,光是在湖北省
就有四百万座房屋被毁,仅在汉口城内就有8000人被淹死。后来的报道宣称,汉口的状
况非常糟糕,主要是安葬尸体和安置难民这两件事非常困难。所有的街道运输都不得不
用舢板和其他船只来代替。然而幸运的是,洪水的水位已经开始下降。塞西尔子爵9月8
日在日内瓦召开的国际联盟代表大会上发言说,根据可靠消息,有数百万人死于中国的
洪灾。有些权威机构将这一数字定在一千万。
汉口成为东方的“威尼斯”:舢板(中式手划船)成为被淹街道上唯一的交通运输工具
——汉口俱乐部旁边一个典型的场景。
在汉口发洪水期间进入香港上海汇丰银行的大门,后来洪水又涨到了更高的水位。
在扬子江江水淹没汉口街道3~8英尺之后的情景:在纽约国立汇丰银行门口有一艘舢板
、一条独木舟,还有一块漂浮着的、上面站着四个人的木板。
汉口被洪水所淹的街道。
安徽省首府安庆城的房屋有一半浸入洪水之中:扬子江上典型的洪灾场景。
汉口跑马场的看台被用作难民的庇护所:在一个洪水造成巨大破坏的城市里展开救灾工
作。
包围了汉口的滔滔洪水:照片上还能看得到的是大型外国石油公司的仓库和储油罐,那
儿的防洪堤曾经在一定时间之内挡住了暴涨的洪水,但最终洪水还是漫过了防洪堤。
最近在中国各地频发的洪灾被认为是国人记忆中情况最糟糕的一次洪水灾难。这是由于
异乎寻常的降水加上每年一度的雪山冰川融化所造成的。洪水暴发的范围广阔,由此造
成的人员和财产损失,以及随后暴发瘟疫和饥荒的危险,造成一个巨大的民族灾难。中
国政府组建了救济水灾委员会来救助赤贫的难民,根据最新的估计,难民总人数高达五
千万人。正如本期封面所表现的那样,汉口城里及周边地区,如隔江相望的武昌和汉阳
的洪灾格外严重,那儿受灾情况之恶劣令人触目惊心。扬子江的水位比历史上最高水位
还要高十英寸,汉口的水位超过了江堤53.5英尺。幸而最新的报告显示那儿的水位已经
降了下来,但是难民问题仍然非常严重。9月6日的一条新闻报告说:“汉口的扬子江水
位比洪峰时期下降了两英尺,人们希望洪水还会继续下降。湖北省省长宣称,该省有45
个县被洪水淹没,一千万人无家可归,无口粮可吃。”在江苏省有24个县被洪水所淹
,240 万人无家可归。“在南京,”9月4日的新闻报道,“有三万名难民。”
水深及腰的市场交易。
随着新的报道不断地出来,中国洪水灾害的规模也在不断地扩大。9月14日南京政府发
表的一个官方声明把全国遭受洪水灾害的总人数定为8000万人。这个数字大概包括无家
可归者、赤贫者和死者。洪水泛滥地区之广是由于扬子江和黄河这两条大河的决堤。在
扬子江上有一块巨大的水面,从沙溪(离扬子江出海口大约有800 英里)一直到汉口,
大约有150 英里长,20 英里宽。还有一块水面是从汉口到下游的九江。由于决堤,整
个地区一下子就被冲得无影无踪,据报道有一个地区5000 人被淹死,另一个地区有
7000人被淹死。根据最近的报道,据推测总共有超过一百万人在这次洪灾中丧生。还将
有更多的人死于由洪灾引起的饥荒和疾病。成千上万的难民们涌入了城市,包括汉口,
他们在那儿的生活状况很快就变得令人难以忍受,由于决堤的洪水淹掉了最初的难民营
,难民们不得不住到了列车铁轨的路基上。洪水淹没了沿江的马路,大部分的城区都进
了好几英尺深的水。街上的交通运输使用了舢板,但是在当地的市场里,人们站在及腰
的深水里进行交易,那些运送食品的苦力有时候还需要蹚过深及脖子的积水。到了9月4
日,汉口的洪水已经退了三英尺,但它仍然是自1870年以来创纪录的一个高水位。
在逆境中仍安然自若:一个运送食品的苦力站在淹到脖子的深水区里。
正如本期封面上那张照片的说明所指出的那样,中国的洪灾被证明要比原先预想的更加
糟糕。一位目击者最近在《泰晤士报》撰写文章指出:
等到洪灾结束的时候,被洪水淹死的人数将会超过一百万。更多的人还将死于饥饿和疾
病。
在那之前,南京方面发表的官方声明宣称,全国的“洪灾受害者”达到了八千万人。在
描述接纳了七万难民的汉口场景时,上述作者写道:
扬子江水漫过了江边马路,城里的许多地区都被淹了。黄包车仍然在接活,在几乎没到
了座位的深水中拉客。在街道上划舢板成为每天都能见到的一道风景。……大多数难民
都带着他们的家产和牲口在城市的后面搭窝棚住。这块地方周围有汉江的堤岸和铁路路
基的保护,以免于受城里洪水的侵扰。后来有一条堤岸决堤,洪水淹了窝棚区。于是难
民们就逃到了铁路路基上去住了。
汉口宣布从晚上十点到凌晨五点实行宵禁,但是每天晚上仍然发生许多抢劫案件。在湖
北省,洪灾造成的损失因有关当局没有维护好堤岸而雪上加霜,尽管政府为此向民众追
加了高额的赋税。由于中外商人们提出了抗议,指责有关当局挪用了相关款项,有两位
高管还因此被命令向公众解释经费的使用情况。
在被淹的汉口指挥交通:一个中国警察在一个中国士兵的帮助下,站在一个被固定的木
箱上执勤。
黄包车仍然在接活,洪水期间汉口的交通。
一位赤脚的警察坐在一个干燥的信箱筒上:汉口的洪水。
难民们在铁路的路基上安家。
P****R
发帖数: 22479
107
现在讨论水深都没有意义,至于航道需要的水深,都是用挖泥船疏浚的。
长江口水道,时时刻刻在疏浚,否则就不能航行。
尽管如此疏浚,还是靠涨潮进上海港,或者在港外进行转驳,卸掉一部分货物后减少吃
水而进港。
d***u
发帖数: 1
108
Shit,要把买买提烦死吗!
n*****8
发帖数: 1
109
对。长江江底有20-30米的泥沙层,现在被挖成航道。要这样算,过去武汉有》30米非
汛期水深+〉20米泥沙深度+》20米洪水深度。现在的所谓12.5米航道都是假的挖出来的
,远远不如过去冬季枯水期的水深。

【在 P****R 的大作中提到】
: 现在讨论水深都没有意义,至于航道需要的水深,都是用挖泥船疏浚的。
: 长江口水道,时时刻刻在疏浚,否则就不能航行。
: 尽管如此疏浚,还是靠涨潮进上海港,或者在港外进行转驳,卸掉一部分货物后减少吃
: 水而进港。

n*****8
发帖数: 1
110
尼玛,没贴数据的时候五毛跳脚嘲笑,现在有权威数据了,开始烦了,这月奖金领不到
了吧。哈哈。
哥还有很多续集呢。呵呵。等着看,好戏还在后头。

【在 d***u 的大作中提到】
: Shit,要把买买提烦死吗!
相关主题
南京长江大桥比武汉长江大桥差太远了1910年的武汉有多牛
在俄罗斯,听习近平讲昨天和今天的故事中铁大桥局承建的武汉第八座长江大桥开工
以前武汉,把自己叫中国的芝加哥京沪高铁“第一桥”大胜关长江大桥通车
n*****8
发帖数: 1
111
基本符合哥小时侯在武汉看到的听到的情况。江宽千米,江深30-40米。在武昌往上(
荆州方向)走有50米深的地段,但江面比长江汉水接口处(汉口)窄很多。

【在 n*****8 的大作中提到】
: 武汉非汛期水深超过30米哥没说错吧。长江边长大的老武汉知道的长江的信息是外地人
: 特别是东北人望尘莫及的。
:
: 3.

d***u
发帖数: 1
112
五毛?谁是五毛?傻呀
Shit maker

【在 n*****8 的大作中提到】
: 尼玛,没贴数据的时候五毛跳脚嘲笑,现在有权威数据了,开始烦了,这月奖金领不到
: 了吧。哈哈。
: 哥还有很多续集呢。呵呵。等着看,好戏还在后头。

n*****8
发帖数: 1
113
这些数据都是非汛期的。

【在 n*****8 的大作中提到】
: 也就是说,三峡大坝没修前,南水北调没开始前,
: 长江上游雅砻河段水深9米,江宽300-400米,
: 长江重庆段水深10米,江宽300-500米,
: 长江三峡段水深150-180米,江宽很窄,
: 长江武汉段水深超过30米,江宽800米,
: 长江南京段水深接近30米,江宽900-1800米,
: 长江上海崇明岛段水深30-40米,江宽1600-3200米,
: 但到长江河口海边只有几尺深,因为河口海边泥沙堆积。

w********9
发帖数: 8613
114
楼主不是脑子出了问题就是无赖
1954年武汉水位创造了有记录以来的150年里的最高。29.73米。将要建桥那段江面最窄、
水最深,而最深处的沉箱深度是35米以上但不到40米。
50米深是在什么地方?白沙洲的浅滩还是西瓜地?
n*****8
发帖数: 1
115
The section of river from the mouth to 250 miles (400 km) upstream is
subject to the influence of tides. The maximum range of the tides near the
mouth is 13 to 15 feet (4 to 5 metres). The Yangtze delta is rich in mud and
silt and is dominated by fluvial and tidal processes.
The present-day bed of the Yangtze in this area is somewhat above the
elevation of the plain. Thus, to protect the surrounding region from
floodwaters, the banks of the main and other rivers are built up; the total
length of banks on the Yangtze on which levees have been constructed is
about 1,700 miles (2,740 km). Dams also have been built for flood protection
on the shores of several lakes; the Qingjiang Reservoir, for example, built
for this purpose near Dongting Lake, has a design capacity of 194 million
cubic feet (5.5 million cubic metres). The delta is protected from the sea
by two gigantic parallel banks that are faced with stone in most parts.
n*****8
发帖数: 1
116
The maximum range of the tides near the mouth is 13 to 15 feet (4 to 5
metres).
长江海口涨潮可到5米。
n*****8
发帖数: 1
117
The present-day bed of the Yangtze in this area is somewhat above the
elevation of the plain.
上海吴淞口一带的长江河床高于地面,
n*****8
发帖数: 1
118
The annual range of water-level fluctuations is considerable—an average of
about 65 feet (20 metres)—with 26 to 35 feet (8 to 11 metres) during years
of low water.
汛期涨水平均20米,水少的年度10米。
n*****8
发帖数: 1
119
In the delta tides exert the greatest influence on the water level. Near the
city of Wusong the daily tidal range is 15 feet (4.5 metres), and the
yearly range is 20 feet (6 metres).
长江三角地段潮水最影响水深,每天潮水高达5米,每年最高达6米。
n*****8
发帖数: 1
120
A breakdown of the water volume delivered to the mouth of the Yangtze shows
that the highland part of the basin contributes 10 percent of the flow,
while the remainder of the water in the river is contributed by the middle
and downstream parts of the basin, with runoff from the basins of Dongting
Lake and Lake Poyang being responsible for about two-fifths of the volume.
洞庭湖鄱阳湖是中下游长江水供应的主要点,现在鄱阳湖冬季也干的厉害,只出不进谁
也受不了。洞庭湖应该也比过去干涸,到时候报数据。呵呵。
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中国的水路客运为什么那么弱?2020年实现长江航运现代化
武汉长江大桥迎55岁生日 被撞70余次仍然无恙南京长江大桥的5000吨轮船限制
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The 1931 flood resulted from heavy, continuous monsoon rains that covered
most of the middle and lower parts of the basin. During May and June, six
huge flood waves swept down the river, destroying the protecting dams and
levees in two dozen places and flooding more than 35,000 square miles (90,
000 square km) of land; 40 million people were rendered homeless or
otherwise suffered. Many population centres, including Nanjing and the Wuhan
conurbation, were underwater. In Wuhan the water remained for more than
four months, the depth exceeding 6 feet (1.8 metres) and in places more than
20 feet (6 metres). In the summer of 1954 another powerful flood occurred,
again the result of continued monsoon rains. The water level sharply
increased and at times exceeded the 1931 flood levels by almost 5 feet (1.5
metres). Effective flood-control measures developed since the 1930s, however
, averted many of the potential consequences of the flood.
1954年夏秋,武汉市遭遇自1865年有水文记录以来的最大洪水。8月18日,江汉关水位
涨到了破纪录的29.73米,比市区地面平均高程高出5米多(江汉关1954年的铜牌,刻有
“一九五四年八月十八日下午三时29.73m,最高洪水位”)。
我老爹说当时汉阳全被淹了,死了很多人。汉口江面已经超过市区,全靠江堤,汉口全
力防护才没问题,武昌地势高,没事儿。
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武汉段长江历年最高水位27.86米(黄海高程,下同)最低水位8.21米,设计洪水位34.75m
长江中下游汛期时间较长,洪水涨落缓慢,为了便于防汛抢险分阶段安排,将防汛特征
水位定为五级,从低到高依次为设防水位、警戒水位、紧急水位、危险水位和保证水位
。例如武汉市第一级设防水位为25m,是因为武汉地面高程在24m左右,江滩高程在24~
25m之间;第二级警戒水位为26.30m,它是根据长江武汉河段历年防汛情况,考虑有可
能出现险情(如散浸、管涌等)的堤防水位确定出来的。第三级紧急水位27.30m。它比
警戒水位抬高1m,堤防可能出现较多险情,需要动员更多的人力、物力进行防汛。第四
级危险水位28.28m,即1931年武汉最高洪水位,它是本世纪以来受灾范围最广、灾情最
重的一次水灾,这个数字被武汉人认定为“危险”的概念。第五级保证水位29.73m,是
1954年武汉特大洪水的最高水位,也是武汉有水文记载以来133年间的最高水位。为了
与长江沿线城市现有防汛水位标示一致,武汉市从1999年起将防汛水位五级变为三级,
即设防水位(25.00m)、警戒水位(27.30m)和保证水位(29.30m)的三级标示。
汛期涨水=最高水位-最低水位=约20米。

of
years

【在 n*****8 的大作中提到】
: The annual range of water-level fluctuations is considerable—an average of
: about 65 feet (20 metres)—with 26 to 35 feet (8 to 11 metres) during years
: of low water.
: 汛期涨水平均20米,水少的年度10米。

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再来看南京的水文数据
关于最低水位
【龙虎网报道】记者昨日从长江南京航道局获悉,昨天早晨8:00,南京下关水位仅
为4.36米,而自本月9日起,长江下游九江、安庆、芜湖等地水位已经连续20天持续下
降,平均水位低于去年2米多。最近一周,长江下游同期水位已创下近30年来最低。不
过目前长江江苏段水利、居民用水一切正常。针对汛期长江出现的罕见低水位,长江防
总提醒沿江各地,久旱必防久雨。
关于最高水位
8月3日,南京下关最高水位达10.04米,超警
戒水位1.54米,据专家预测,更大的洪峰将于
4日进入江苏省,6日至7日南京下关水位有可能
达到或接近1954年历史最高水位。江苏省沿江
地区干部、群众正全力准备迎战第三次洪峰。
《人民日报 》1998-08-04 第1版
好吧,10.04m到4.36m差不多6m高差。
南京的汛期涨水约6米。

75m

【在 n*****8 的大作中提到】
: 武汉段长江历年最高水位27.86米(黄海高程,下同)最低水位8.21米,设计洪水位34.75m
: 长江中下游汛期时间较长,洪水涨落缓慢,为了便于防汛抢险分阶段安排,将防汛特征
: 水位定为五级,从低到高依次为设防水位、警戒水位、紧急水位、危险水位和保证水位
: 。例如武汉市第一级设防水位为25m,是因为武汉地面高程在24m左右,江滩高程在24~
: 25m之间;第二级警戒水位为26.30m,它是根据长江武汉河段历年防汛情况,考虑有可
: 能出现险情(如散浸、管涌等)的堤防水位确定出来的。第三级紧急水位27.30m。它比
: 警戒水位抬高1m,堤防可能出现较多险情,需要动员更多的人力、物力进行防汛。第四
: 级危险水位28.28m,即1931年武汉最高洪水位,它是本世纪以来受灾范围最广、灾情最
: 重的一次水灾,这个数字被武汉人认定为“危险”的概念。第五级保证水位29.73m,是
: 1954年武汉特大洪水的最高水位,也是武汉有水文记载以来133年间的最高水位。为了

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长江水位较历年偏低 仍属正常范围
长江当前水位怎样?武汉水文局副局长李正珊介绍,昨日17时,武汉关水位为13.
51米。相关数据显示,有水文历史资料记载以来的148年里,武汉关2月份历年最低水位
均值为13.05米,1月份最低水位均值为13.12米,2月份历年平均水位为13.86米,而
1865年2月,长江汉口水位还曾出现低至10.08米的极值。从这些数据可以分析得出,今
年武汉关水位较历年平均水位略为偏低,但仍属正常范围之内。
他表示,去年秋冬季至今,长江上游来水较少,自然降水量较往年偏少,三峡大坝
也未获得足够的来水量,可供包括武汉在内的下游段进行水位调节。而长江武汉段的自
然降水量也较往年偏低,因此令此段的区间来水也受到一定影响。
不过,“枯水”的日子不会太长。随着3月即将到来,三峡水库将向下游放水,为
预防汛期大水的可能来临腾出更多库容。届时,可有效缓解长江武汉段水位偏低的状况
。(记者谷萍)
(来源:长江日报)
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相关数据显示,有水文历史资料记载以来的148年里,武汉关2月份历年最低水位
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記者從蕪湖海事局瞭解到,自10月中旬以來,長江下游水位持續走低,已出現近三年同
期最低水位,導致近期頻繁發生船舶擱淺和碰撞事故,低枯水位已威脅到長江下游航運
安全。
交通運輸部長江航務管理局發佈的7日11時數據顯示,長江蕪湖段水位已經從10月10日
的4.57米下降到11月1日的1.76米,7日又跌至1.66米,而長江南京段水位更在7日低至1
.21米,長江下游整體水位還在繼續回落。
據瞭解,目前長江下游的罕見低枯水位已經拉響了枯水期水上航行安全警報。僅10月28
日、29日兩天,長江蕪湖江段就發生了三起擱淺和碰撞事故。蕪湖海事局王強介紹,由
於水位跌落較快,長江下游部分水域航槽漸窄,航行條件發生較大變化,又因進入惡劣
天氣多發的冬季,船舶容易發生擱淺、碰撞事故。
對此,海事部門提醒長江航行船舶,及時瞭解掌握有關氣象水文和安全信息,加強值班
和瞭望,確保航行安全。
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10月24日,武汉天兴洲附近的江面退缩严重,江底的淤泥已经显露出来,有些江段已
露出江底的防洪水泥板。今年10月以来,长江水位大幅退落,特别是汉口段水位,以平
均每天0.1米的幅度退落,当日更是跌破3.6米,达到3.59米。中新社发 摄记 摄
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2009年10月24日,武汉天兴洲附近的江面退缩严重。江底已经干枯。10月24日,武汉天
兴洲附近的江面退缩严重,江底的淤泥已经显露出来,有些江段露出江底的防洪水泥板
。今年十月以来,长江水位大幅退落,特别是汉口水位,以平均每天0.1米的幅度退落
,昨天达到3.62米,比历年的平均值低3米以上,而今天更是跌破3.6米,达到3.59米。
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因为泥沙堆积,长江口只有2-3米水深,一定要靠潮水5-6米进长江。但长江内过了长江
口就是30米了,一直到武汉都这样,到过去的山峡水更深到150-200米,但水太急很危
险。

【在 P****R 的大作中提到】
: 现在讨论水深都没有意义,至于航道需要的水深,都是用挖泥船疏浚的。
: 长江口水道,时时刻刻在疏浚,否则就不能航行。
: 尽管如此疏浚,还是靠涨潮进上海港,或者在港外进行转驳,卸掉一部分货物后减少吃
: 水而进港。

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清末从吴淞口到陆家嘴以南黄浦江下游航道的淤塞,不仅影响大型船只出入黄浦江,甚
至发展成为严重的外交问题,并且影响到上海城市发展规划和发展方向。上海社会各界
一度考虑上海市区不再向西发展,改而接受向长江口发展的北向方案,1930年代的“大
上海计划”因此启动实施。直到黄浦江下游航段疏浚完成,上海城市向西发展的结果才
真正被认可。
“自同治十三年(1874年)起,部分吨位大、吃水深的船舶需在吴淞口外候潮或减
载后方能进港。如光绪二年至三年间的一年半里,就有占进口船舶总数的1.7%的97艘轮
船,经采取不同的措施后进港。
光绪二十七年,西方列强迫使清政府签订《辛丑条约》,在条约第十一款第二目中
,提出设立黄浦河道局,整治黄浦江航道;在附件第十七中,用37个条目对组织领导、
职权范围和经费来源作了具体规定。此后,几经磋商,于光绪三十一年重新改定修治黄
浦河道条款(共12条),规定:(1)所有改善及保全黄浦河道并吴淞内外沙滩各工统
由江海关道暨税务司管理;(2)三个月内中国自行选择熟悉河工之工程师,但要经《
辛丑条约》各签署国使臣半数以上同意,方可委派;(3)每三个月须将所办工程及所
用各款详细开列,并送驻沪各国领事馆待查;(4)河工全部费用由中国承担,并且不
向沿江各地产及来往船货征收税捐。
光绪三十一年五月,在英、荷等国的压力下,南洋大臣答应聘用荷兰人奈格为技术
顾问、总营造司(即总工程师)。十二月初一(12月26日),浚浦工程总局成立。翌年
起正式开始整治工程。……在奈格的指导下,至宣统三年(1911年),先后完成了吴淞
左导堤、右顺坝,北港嘴至陈家嘴左右两岸大部堤坝工程,北支上口堵坝,南支新航道
挖泥工程。其中,吴淞左导堤和堵塞老航道、开挖新航道的工程对治理内外沙起了重要
的作用。吴淞外沙水深由整治前4.6米增至6.4米,吴淞内沙则不复存在。
宣统二年底,清政府撤销浚浦工程总局,改设善后养工局。民国元年(1912年)4
月4日,经国民政府修改后正式颁发《办理浚浦局章程》。随后,撤销善后养工局,于5
月成立开浚黄浦河道局(简称浚浦局)。”[32]
民国元年至9年间,在瑞典籍总工程师海德生主持下,浚浦局先后进行了一系列工
程,通过导治和挖泥相结合“束水攻沙”的方法,改善了黄浦江中浅滩处的航行条件。
民国10年,4万吨级美国邮轮“Wenatchee”号顺利进港靠泊招商局华栈码头。
“民国14年,开始实施复兴岛吹填工程,于民国16年完成。民国20~21年又实施了
陆家嘴锐湾填底工程。至此,黄浦江航道经过近30年的治理,取得明显成效。民国25年
,黄浦江航道南市以下段的4处浅段的水深分别为:吴淞外沙9.61米,高桥新航道9.14
米,陈家嘴航道7.93米,汇山航道8.54米。”
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据说李鹏一次讲话说“中台 两国 人民”南京长江大桥 陆民心中的第一
老不死的武汉南京长江大桥让谁窝心 zt48岁高龄南京长江大桥封闭大修27个月 民众争相留影
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1927年后吴淞外沙9.61米,加上汛期最高涨潮6米,15-16米水深,可以过1-5万吨轮。
过了长江口,后面30米水深就不是问题了。
所以1968年后万吨轮不能从海港直接到武汉,就是南京长江大桥24米太矮了。
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2009年中新社南京十月二十四日电 记者二十四日从长江南京航道局了解到,长江下游
九江、安庆、芜湖、南京等地水位已退至一九八六年以来历史同期最低值,江堤边泥沙
地表裸露出来,绽出一条条龟裂,搁浅船只较往年增多。
由于受长江流域降雨量偏少、上中游来水量减少及三峡大坝蓄水的影响,长江下游水位
退落较快,下游航道遭遇枯水困扰。由于河床得不到有效冲刷,航道适航条件也逐渐变
差。
长江南京航道局统计数字显示,今年九月,长江安徽芜湖水位还维持在六米左右,到本
月二十二日,芜湖水位退至两米,为一九八六年以来同期最低值,低于历年同期水位两
米多。
记者另从南京海事局、江苏省水利厅获知:至二十四日上午,长江南京下关段潮位最低
仅为三点二八米,长江大通水位为五点七八米,长江镇江段潮位为四点三八米。
长江下游本地降水偏少也是水位回落迅猛的又一原因。江苏省气象台在本月发布消息称
:淮北和江淮北部地区无降水,较常年偏少七成至九成。
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由于受长江流域降雨量偏少、上中游来水量减少及三峡大坝蓄水的影响,长江下游水位
退落较快,下游航道遭遇枯水困扰。
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已经有大量报道反映全国江河水系已经有90%以上受到污染,其中70%的水系受到严重污
染。长江流域面积达到国土面积的一半以上,也就意味着全国近一半的污染将以长江为
排放渠道,这样的污染规模和污染程度必将超出长江自身的净化能力。一旦长江的自净
化能力遭到不可逆转的彻底破坏,上海就将生活在庞大的“龙须沟”臭水浜中,将面临
身在水乡却无水可喝的绝境。我们在享受长江的航运之利、灌溉之利、饮水之利时,一
定不能忽略了保护“母亲河”。千万不要以为,长江对任何污染都能消化。
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https://www.aboluowang.com/2009/1025/147638.html
图太多自己去看。

【在 n*****8 的大作中提到】
: 由于受长江流域降雨量偏少、上中游来水量减少及三峡大坝蓄水的影响,长江下游水位
: 退落较快,下游航道遭遇枯水困扰。

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中国南方严重大旱 创下多年记录(图)
(博讯北京时间2009年10月27日 转载)
来源:新浪网

中国南方严重大旱 创下多年记录(组图)

裸露出来的江滩的裂缝可以放入一只成年男子的手
中国南方严重大旱 创下多年记录(组图)

长江九江段水位降低,江滩裸露出来

长江九江段水位降低,江滩裸露出来。受江西省缺雨和长江上中游来水量减少,以
及三峡大坝蓄水的影响,长江下游水位退落较快。当日,长江九江段14时水位 9.64米
,较昨日下降6厘米。目前, 长江下游九江、安庆、芜湖、南京等地14时水位水位已退
至1986年以来历史同期最低值,长江航道通航形势日趋严峻。
中国南方严重大旱 创下多年记录(组图)

贵阳遭遇严重旱情 稻田土地开裂

2009年9月12日,从2006年以来最为严重的旱情袭击贵阳。贵阳市花溪高坡乡稻穗
颗粒不饱满,出现当地人称“半人米”,据当地老乡介绍,稻米正在打米浆时候,天就
没有下过雨,现在很多稻田里田土开裂,稻穗枯死,估计干旱严重的稻田减产40%至60%
。根据1951年至2008年历史同期资料表明,我省今年的旱情情况在历史同期较为罕见。

中国南方严重大旱 创下多年记录(组图)

长江武汉江段枯水 江底露出淤泥

2009年10月24日,武汉天兴洲附近的江面退缩严重,江底的淤泥已经显露出来,有
些江段露出江底的防洪水泥板。今年十月以来,长江水位大幅退落,特别是汉口水位,
以平均每天0.1米的幅度退落,10月23日达到3.62米,比历年的平均值低3米以上,而今
天更是跌破3.6米,达到3.59米。
中国南方严重大旱 创下多年记录(组图)

安徽安庆:长江安庆段出现近30年来最低水位

2009年10月25日早上8时,长江安徽省安庆段水位为6.80米,比历史同期低4.25米
。这也是长江水位安庆段近三十年来的最低。据了解,长江安庆段水位从8月14日出现
今年汛期最高洪峰水位13.97米后,就一直呈下降的趋势,出现这种低水位的原因是由
于9月份的降雨量太少,据安庆气象资料记录9 月份降水量只有38.6毫米,比历年同期
少三成,进入10月份以来也少有降水。超低水位给长江航运带来不利影响,尤其是长江
太子矶水道的超低水位对过往船只造成很大安全隐患,部分船舶相继搁浅。
中国南方严重大旱 创下多年记录(组图)

江西:赣江上游章贡两江出现严重水位下降

2009年10月22日,江西赣县境内的贡江河床裸露,几乎断流的情景。据赣州市水利
部门介绍,由于当地久未下雨,章江、贡江的水位下降明显,均出现了多处裸露河床的
现象。当日,在附近建设贡江大桥的一施工作业的工人说,去年这个时候。桥下的河水
比现在高约2米多,现在沙滩暴露,有些地方人都可以涉水走到河对岸去。

中国南方严重大旱 创下多年记录(组图)

江西靖安:潦河干旱 水位创近30年新低

2009 年以来,江西省靖安县降雨量仅为1002毫米,比多年同期少482.5 毫米,特
别是7月初到现在基本没有降雨。境内潦河干旱,据靖安县水文站提供的资料显示,水
位创1979年来近30年新低。全县11个乡镇不同程度受灾,尤以仁首、香田、双溪、水口
、雷公尖等乡镇最为严重,农作物受旱面积12.32万亩,占农作物总面积的53.6%;受灾
人口达5.7万人;0.43万人和 0.16万头大牲畜因旱出现人畜饮水困难,36座水库和83口
山塘干竭,出现了多年来罕见的旱情。
n*****8
发帖数: 1
137
北京6月14日电(记者姚润丰)记者从国家防汛抗旱总指挥部获悉,受近期南方降雨
影响,福建闽江支流富屯溪洋口站、支流南浦溪水吉站,浙江杭嘉湖地区王江泾站及乌
镇站、飞云河支流瑞平塘河平阳站等水位超警,幅度为0.06至0.31米。
6月3日以来,长江中下游地区连续出现较强降雨过程。据国家防总办公室统计,
6月3日8时至14日8时,前期严重受旱的湖北、湖南、江西、安徽、江苏五省累计
降雨量分别达94毫米、122毫米、172毫米、114毫米和38毫米。受降雨影
响,近期长江中下游部分江河发生涨水过程,其中江西修水、信江、昌江上游干流、赣
江支流锦江及芗水,湖南资水、汨罗江、湘江支流涟水及涓水,湖北陆水等河流发生超
过警戒水位的洪水,超警幅度为0.02至1.44米,其中陆水上游支流发生了超历
史记录的特大洪水。
国家防总办公室副主任束庆鹏介绍,受沿线支流洪水汇入和三峡水库前期持续补水
的共同作用,长江中下游干流水位总体呈波动式回升态势。监测显示,6月14日8时
,长江中下游干流及两湖主要控制站宜昌、沙市、汉口、大通、城陵矶、湖口水位分别
为41.74米、34.48米、19.93米、9.13米、26.42米和13.
82米,较今年5月出现的最低水位分别抬升了2.00米、2.64米、5.08米
、3.83米、4.93米和5.41米,但仍较多年同期水位分别偏低4.05米、
3.39米、1.51米、1.82米、0.69米和1.93米,低于警戒水位5.
27至11.26米。
受长江干流水位持续回升和两湖主要支流来水汇入的共同作用,洞庭湖、鄱阳湖的
水面面积较前期干旱时明显扩大。水利部水文情报预报中心联合水利部遥感技术应用中
心根据遥感资料分析,洞庭湖城陵矶站今年干旱低水位(22.03米,4月26日)
时水面面积约352平方公里,6月9日城陵矶站水位达24.97米,洞庭湖水面面
积约776平方公里,扩大了120%。鄱阳湖湖口站今年干旱低水位(9.32米,
4月23日)时水面面积约961平方公里,6月9日湖口站水位达11.3米,鄱阳
湖水面面积约1379平方公里,扩大了近44%。
n*****8
发帖数: 1
138
长江中下游干流及两湖主要控制站宜昌、沙市、汉口、大通、城陵矶、湖口水位分别
为41.74米、34.48米、19.93米、9.13米、26.42米和13.
82米
水位这东西很好,可以根据情况调整用不同点的水基和高程,历史数据就没法看了。
水深数据不好,很容易穿帮,应该规划为国家机密。呵呵。
A****C
发帖数: 1
139
对地合成孔径雷达(SAR)观测遥感卫星可以测出水深,连古墓都可以检测到。
什么国家机密。

【在 n*****8 的大作中提到】
: 长江中下游干流及两湖主要控制站宜昌、沙市、汉口、大通、城陵矶、湖口水位分别
: 为41.74米、34.48米、19.93米、9.13米、26.42米和13.
: 82米
: 水位这东西很好,可以根据情况调整用不同点的水基和高程,历史数据就没法看了。
: 水深数据不好,很容易穿帮,应该规划为国家机密。呵呵。

r*****2
发帖数: 2682
140
扯犊子,武汉关水位80米,武汉吹whoami以他十八代祖宗的名誉担保。

【在 n*****8 的大作中提到】
: 长江中下游干流及两湖主要控制站宜昌、沙市、汉口、大通、城陵矶、湖口水位分别
: 为41.74米、34.48米、19.93米、9.13米、26.42米和13.
: 82米
: 水位这东西很好,可以根据情况调整用不同点的水基和高程,历史数据就没法看了。
: 水深数据不好,很容易穿帮,应该规划为国家机密。呵呵。

相关主题
48岁高龄南京长江大桥封闭大修27个月 民众争相留影在俄罗斯,听习近平讲昨天和今天的故事
如果公交是从南京大桥坠落,乘客有生还可能以前武汉,把自己叫中国的芝加哥
南京长江大桥比武汉长江大桥差太远了1910年的武汉有多牛
n*****8
发帖数: 1
141
hms glory, flagship of the china station, 1903年到过汉口。

【在 n*****8 的大作中提到】
: Canopus-class battleship
: Operators: Royal Navy
: Preceded by: Majestic class
: Succeeded by: Formidable class
: Built: 1896–1902
: In commission: 1899–1919
: Completed: 6
: Lost: 2
: Retired: 4
: General characteristics

n*****8
发帖数: 1
142
当时的上海港对比武汉港没啥优势,只要能进吴淞口的万吨军舰和货船,都可以到上海
港或武汉港。

【在 n*****8 的大作中提到】
: 1927年后吴淞外沙9.61米,加上汛期最高涨潮6米,15-16米水深,可以过1-5万吨轮。
: 过了长江口,后面30米水深就不是问题了。
: 所以1968年后万吨轮不能从海港直接到武汉,就是南京长江大桥24米太矮了。

n*****8
发帖数: 1
143
THE RECONSTRUCTION OF HANKOW
China's Commercial And Industrial Capital.
From The Far Eastern Review.
Ever since the fateful fire which destroyed the Chinese city of Hankow
during the Revolution of 1911-12 it has been generally known that the
Chinese Government has been desirous of rebuilding the city upon modern
lines and making other improvements in the vicinity compatible with the
importance of such a flourishing commercial and industrial center. It was,
therefore, not surprising when it became known that an agreement had been
signed between the Central Government and Messrs. Samuel and Company, of
London, on September 17th, for a loan for this purpose. The agreement
provides that the loan, which is to be known as "The Hankow Improvement Loan
," shall be for £1o,ooo,ooo at five per cent, interest, and shall be issued
in one or more series at a rate to be determined upon by the parties after
the conclusion of hostilities in Europe.
The object of the loan is to develop and improve the city of Hankow, and, in
particular, to purchase and reclaim the necessary land for new roads and to
construct roads; to construct a bridge or tunnel to connect the north bank
of the Yangtze River with Wuchang; to construct a bridge, or bridges, to
connect the cities of Hankow and Hanyang; to provide a tramway system; to
construct a canal with the necessary bridges at the back of Hankow city
between the Han and Yangtze rivers; to build wharves; to provide funds for
the purchase by the Government of the existing Electric Light and Waterworks
Company's undertakings at Hankow; to provide such further improvements as
may be found necessary to improve the city of Hankow, in accordance with
modern practice (e. g., the construction of embankments, drainage schemes,
etc.); to provide funds for the establishment and maintenance of the Hankow
Improvement Bureau to be established by the Government for the
administration of the Hankow Improvement Scheme, and for the purchase of all
necessary equipment required by the same, also to provide for the
establishment and maintenance of the necessary police force re
quired owing to the extension of the city; and to furnish an adequate margin
of funds to insure the maintenance of interest payments, pending the
completion of the works.
The loan is to be guaranteed by the Central Government and in addition is to
be secured by a first mortgage on the property purchased and created with
the proceeds of the loan funds, and the revenues of undertakings initiated
under the scheme. The period of the loan is to be fortyfive years; the
interest to be paid half-yearly. The Government will guarantee that the loan
shall be free from all present and future Chinese taxes and imposts.
In order to insure judicious expenditure of the funds devoted to the
purchase of land the Government and Messrs. Samuel and Company, Limited,
will by mutual agreement appoint a commission under the presidency of the
High Commissioner, and composed of two Chinese and two foreign members, to
undertake the work, no purchases to be effected without the approval of a
majority of the Commission.
The engineering work will be supervised by an engineer who shall be an
acknowledged expert in town planning, his appointment to be made by the
Government with the approval of Messrs. Samuel and Co., Ltd. He will act as
engineer-in-chief to the Hankow Improvement Bureau, and will make plans,
estimates, and specifications; and generally advise the Bureau regarding the
most suitable and economical methods of carrying out the work of
remodelling the city of Hankow, building bridges, reclaiming land,
installing a tramway system, etc.
The agreement provides that in the purchase of materials Chinese materials
shall, where possible, be specified, and, when materials of foreign
manufacture are purchased British materials shall have the preference with
due regard to quality and price.
How important it is that the Central Government should take advantage of the
destruction wrought by the Revolu
tion to make of Hankow an up-to-date and efficiently equipped city can be
gauged by a study of its location in relation to the rest of China and of
the natural resources which are within reach for great industrial
development. A glance at a map of China will show that it is placed in an
extraordinarily favorable situation to command the trade of a vast portion
of the Chinese Republic. It is situated on the great Yangtze River roughly
at an equal distance from the north and south, and forms, or will form, the
point of junction of the Peking-Hankow and Canton-Hankow railways and will
be the point of radiation of other lines running into the province of
Szechuan, and eastwards to the sea.
On the opposite side of the Yangtze River is the Chinese city of Wuchang,
famous as the starting point of the Revolution which resulted in the
overthrow of the Manchus and the inauguration of the Republic, and on the
opposite side of the Han River, which flows into the Yangtze River at this
point, is the city of Hanyang, where is situated the Arsenal and Iron
Foundry.
On the down-river side of Hankow native city, the one to be rebuilt, are the
foreign concessions. They stretch along the left bank of the Yangtze and
give an air of solid prosperity to the locality.
Wuchang is actually the capital of the province, and is a walled and
fortified city with a population estimated at about 25o,ooo. Though not
officially opened to foreign trade, its very propinquity to the open port of
Hankow is bringing it into more intimate relations with foreign trade. It
is the site, too, of some of the recent industrial undertakings of the
Chinese, among which are the Wuchang woolen mill, the cotton mill, and
Diederichsen's albumen factory.
Wuchang is situated at the narrowest point of the Yangtze River, the stream
being narrowed between two opposite heights, with Snake Hill on the Wuchang
side and Tortoise Hill on the Hanyang side. The current of the river is
restricted between these two low bluffs to a breadth of 3,ooo feet, and it
is at this point that it is proposed to bridge the stream and by this means
to bring the railways to the north and south into direct connection and thus
to form an easy means of communication for the thousands of passengers who
daily pass to and fro between the cities on the north and south banks of the
river.
Slightly northeast of Wuchang, in the obtuse angle formed by the junction of
the Yangtze and Han rivers is situated the port or "mart" of Hankow. The
Chinese city is at the actual junction of the two rivers. Adjoining the
Chinese city on the east we have the British, French, German and Japanese
settlements, each facing the Yangtze River front, which is bunded for a
distance of some three and a half miles.
Immediately opposite Wuchang, and in the acute angle formed by the junction
of the Han River and the Yangtze, is situated the city of Hanyang, which
takes its name from the two rivers. Its population may be estimated at
approximately 7o,ooo, and it owes its existence as a city to the location in
this place of the Hanyang Iron Works, founded by the late Chang Chih-tung.
These iron works obtain their ore from the Tayeh mines, seven and a half
miles south of the Yangtze, at a point seventy miles below Hankow, while
coal comes from the Pinghsiang collieries in the province of Kiangsi, the
three industries being combined in one joint stock company, the Hanyehping
Coal and Iron Company. The company's exports abroad in 19o9 amounted to 37,
6oo tons and in 191o to 63,7oo tons. New machinery was installed to bring
the output to 8oo to 0oo tons per day. The iron works have supplied many of
the railways in China with rails, etc. The employees number some forty
Europeans and several thousand Chinese. In Hanyang there is also situated
the Government Arsenal, where various types of arms are manufactured.
For all practical purposes Hanyang may be considered
as forming merely a suburb of Hankow. The construction of a fixed bridge
across the Han River will probably not be practicable, owing to the sudden
and great changes in the height of the water level. It is therefore proposed
to facilitate the communication between the two cities of Hanyang and
Hankow by means of a transporter. When this is completed the three cities
will practically be welded in one.
Even before the revolution it had long been apparent to the Chinese
Government that the condition of the city of Hankow was unworthy of the
premier industrial and trading center of China, and still more so of the
future development of Hankow as the strategic center of the Chinese system
of railways and waterways. The Han River was. and is, always choked by the
enormous numbers of native craft plying upon it. Excepting for the wharves
of the China Merchants Navigation Company, and those of Messrs. Butterfield
and Swire, there are no facilities for loading and unloading goods from
steamers in the native city, the only accommodation provided in this respect
being situated in the foreign settlements. The Chinese city of Hankow, with
its swarming population, was restricted to a very small area, with narrow,
dirty and insanitary streets. No proper provision for intercommunication
existed between the three cities whose aggregate population was at least 1,
4oo,ooo. No proper scheme existed for the extension of the city which must
follow on the further opening up of China by railways, and the further
increase in its foreign trade.
In 1911 the three cities formed the center of the fighting between the
Imperialists and the Revolutionists. The actual signal for the premature
outbreak of the Revolution was given by the explosion of a bomb which
occurred in a . bouse in the Russian Settlement at Hankow. This led to the
discovery of the plans of the Revolutionists, who, seeing their plans
exposed and having a large part of the garrison 1 of Wuchang on their side,
struck. In the fighting which ensued Hankow and Hanyang were taken and
retaken by Imperialists and Revolutionists, while Wuchang remained in the
hands of the Revolutionists throughout. Foreign settlements were respected
by the belligerents and suffered > no other damage than may have been done
by a stray shell. On the final capture of the native city of Hankow by the
Imperialists and before peace could put a stop to hostilities the city was
burned to the ground, and upon its ashes the ultimately established
Republican Government decided to build a city upon modern lines. However,
their good intentions were frustrated owing to financial stringency and the
Chinese began to rebuild of their own accord upon lines almost similar to
the old conditions, though the roads have been considerably widened by the
authorities refusing to issue building licenses except upon the
understanding that buildings were to be set back three feet from their
former site. Now that the Government has entered into an agreement with
Messrs. Samuel and Company, Limited, steps will be taken, when the time
arrives, to put into effect many improvements so that the city may take the
place it ought to occupy as the leading commercial and industrial center in
China.
Trade to Hankow from the south now chiefly finds its way by various
waterways to the Yangtze, but this trade will be greatly facilitated and
augmented by the completion of the Canton-Hankow Railway now in course of
construction. A further link will be forged with Western China by the
completion in the next few years of the railway to Szechuan, a joint British
, French, German and American enterprise, while further feeders such as the
Shasi-Shingyi line are already contracted for or contemplated. The
construction of the Sinyangchow-Pukow Railway, being built with British
capital, and other lines will also contribute to the growing trade of the
city.
Disregarding for the moment the construction of these new methods of
transportation which will facilitate the movement of goods and people along
the already defined lines of travel in China, it will be seen that Hankow
commands the trade of the whole of central China moving along the waterways
which form the main arteries of traffic. Thus it receives the whole of the
river-borne trade from the provinces of Hupch and Szechuan, which reaches
Hankow along the Yangtze and its trihutaries, and taps a region with a
population of 78,11o,ooo for Szechuan, and 34.ooo,ooo for Hupeh. The river
Han, from which Hankow, meaning "Han mouth," takes its name, brings to it
the trade from northern Hupch, Honan (with an estimated population of 22,1oo
,ooo), and southern Shensi. The Tungting Lake and its feeders contribute the
trade from the south of the province of Hupeh, the province of Hunan (with
an estimated population of 22,ooo,ooo), and part of the province of Kweichow
. While Hankow is thus favorably situated for steamer traffic from the west
of China, and from Hankow itself to the eastern provinces, it must be borne
in mind that the city is the highest point on the Yangtze to which ocean-
going vessels of light draught can ascend at all times of the year, while
during a very large portion of the year it is accessible to ocean-going
steamers of the deepest draught. During the months of April to October, when
the Yangtze is high, ocean-going steamers of 15,ooo tons burden may be seen
lying alongside the wharves of Hankow, 6oo miles or more from the sea,
while on one occasion the British first-class battleship Glory anchored off
the bund.
Reliable statistics as to the population of Hankow, Hanyang and Wuchang, of
which it forms a portion, are not forthcoming. In Captain Blackiston's
account of Hankow in his survey of the Yangtze River when the place was
first opened to trade on the conclusion of the Treaty of Tientsin, 186o, we
learn that the city was then already a place of great importance. This
expedition commanded by Admiral Hope ascended the Yangtze River for the
purposes of survey, and in order to throw open to trade the ports of
Chinkiang, Wulu1, Kiukiang, and Hankow, and to establish consulates there.
During the fifties and early sixties the whole of central China was ravaged
by the Taiping rebels. Little was heard outside of China of the wholesale
destruction of human life and property that occurred in the interior of the
country during the years that the Taipings were in possession of most of the
Yangtze region. The ravages of these rebels were only observed by
foreigners in the vicinity of the then opened Treaty ports such as Shanghai;
but after the rebellion was subdued by the exertions of Chinese statesmen,
such as Tseng Kuo-fan and Li Hung-chang, with the co-operation of General
Gordon, whose services were lent to the Chinese by the British Government,
and on the opening of the Yangtze region as a result of the Treaty of
Tientsin, it became apparent that the whole country, lately the most
prosperous portion of the Chinese Empire, had been to a large extent
depopulated. Reliable authorities have calculated the loss of life in China
owing to the Taiping and the Mohammedan rebellions at approximately1oo.ooo.
ooo—c. f. Putnam Weale in "Conflict of Colour."
No better instance of the extraordinary recuperative powers of the Chinese
nation, and of the productiveness of the Yangtze region, can be adduced than
the fact that in spite of this wholesale slaughter, the ruined cities were
soon rebuilt, the countryside which had reverted to a jungle interspersed
with ruined villages, was soon repopulated and cultivated, and during the
forty years of peace which elapsed between t86o and 19oo the population of
the Yangtze area recovered to a point higher than it had ever attained to in
Chinese history. Trade at all Yangtze ports showed a rising curve during
all these years, but first and foremost the trade of Hankow, as attested by
the returns of the Maritime Customs Revenue, increased out of all proportion
to all others, owing to the exceptional situation of the port, which has
been described as the
Chicago of China. In the "China Year-Book," 1913, the estimated population
of Hankow, exclusive of the sister cities of Hanyang and Wuchang, is given
as 826,ooo, while that of the province of Hupeh, of which Wuchang, with its
sister cities of Hankow and Hanyang, is the capital, is given as 34,ooo,ooo
(Customs estimate, 191o, 34,ooo,ooo; Chinese official census, 1885, 33,6oo,
ooo).
Thus we see Hankow as the trading portion of a group of three cities with a
total population of something over 1,ooo,ooo, is situated in the strategic
center fur trade purposes of the principal provinces of China, namely, Hupeh
, Hunan, Honan, Szechuan and Shensi. each of these provinces being equal in
area and population to a European state of the first order. The aggregate
population of these provinces is not less than 158,o:1o,ooo, or about the
same as the combined population of Germany. France and the British Islands,
with Belgium and Holland thrown in. Many of the provinces of China
contribute to Hankow's import and export trade, and again a large portion of
the trade contributed by the millions of inhabitants of Central Asia flnds
its outlet to the sea at Hankow, while their requirements are imported
through the same avenue.
THE BRIDGE OVER THE YANGTZE.
In this suggested structure provision will be made for a roadway thirty feet
wide, two six-feet wide cantilever pathways, and a single line of railway.
The type of bridge at present suggested is a constant level floating bridge
some 3.75o feet long, provided with twin opening spans electrically operated
, giving a clear waterway of not less than 2oo feet for the passage of
steamers plying between Hankow and Ichang, which are much smaller craft than
those trading between Hankow and down-river ports.
It is considered that a structure of this particular type has many
advantages in overcoming some of the difficulties in foundation works. The
general idea embodied in this important structure was detailed in one of the
competitive designs for a bridge over the Hooghly at Calcutta. The constant
level floating bridge has a del ided advantage over an ordinary floating
bridge which would rise and fall according to the considerable variation of
the level on the Yangtze. It is thought, however, that this extreme
variation in water level may necessitate, for economical reasons, having
moderate gradings from each bank of the river towards the center of the
bridge.
In order to maintain the bridge at constant levels the submerged pontoons
carrying the superstructure will be anchored down at and below the low water
level of the river by means of tension rods, which will, in turn, be
attached to groups of cylinders sunk deeply into the bed of the river.
Consequently there is always an upward pressure exerted by the pontoons, and
the stress in the abovementioned tension members never becomes zero and is
only reduced by the full application of the external load which the bridge
is designed to carry.
It is estimated that one group of steel cylinders forming a "foundation" to
sustain the upward pull as a swing span would entail the use of some twenty
cylinders not less than lfi feet in diameter, while the ordinary fixed span
groups for the same purpose would each need twenty cylinders not less than
1o feet in diameter as a foundation. The submerged pontoons providing the
floating power to carry the superstructure would be of considerable length
and diameter, strongly framed internally and divided into numerous
watertight compartments. Provision will be made to remove cylinders for
repairs as necessity arises. Until the necessary investigations at the site
are concluded it is impossible to indicate more than the present general
intention of those responsible for carrying into actual effect this large
and much-needed bridge, which will certainly rank as an undertaking of the
first magnitude, involving as it will considerable engineering difficulties.
n*****8
发帖数: 1
144
While Hankow is thus favorably situated for steamer traffic from the west
of China, and from Hankow itself to the eastern provinces, it must be borne
in mind that the city is the highest point on the Yangtze to which ocean-
going vessels of light draught can ascend at all times of the year, while
during a very large portion of the year it is accessible to ocean-going
steamers of the deepest draught. During the months of April to October, when
the Yangtze is high, ocean-going steamers of 15,ooo tons burden may be seen
lying alongside the wharves of Hankow, 6oo miles or more from the sea,
while on one occasion the British first-class battleship Glory anchored off
the bund.
汛期15000吨海轮和英国一级战列舰光荣号到过汉口港。
n*****8
发帖数: 1
145
2005年12月29日下午,三三两两的游人正在武汉市汉口江滩裸露的滩头上散步、游玩。
今冬以来,湖北省遭遇125年来最长冬旱,武汉市连续40多天基本无雨。进入枯水期的
长江水位不断下降,不少趸船码头搁浅在滩地上。平缓的江滩一直向江中延伸,最宽处
约达300米。就连粤汉码头的旅游船码头,也搭起了长长的跳板,从岸边走到船上也得
七八分钟。(h
n*****8
发帖数: 1
146
现在武汉所谓的可过万吨轮,如果按照过去的汛期水深,加上挖通吴淞和九江黄石一带
浅滩,50万吨轮吃水只有25米,都可以到武汉。现在中国新闻骗人太厉害。

【在 n*****8 的大作中提到】
: 对。长江江底有20-30米的泥沙层,现在被挖成航道。要这样算,过去武汉有》30米非
: 汛期水深+〉20米泥沙深度+》20米洪水深度。现在的所谓12.5米航道都是假的挖出来的
: ,远远不如过去冬季枯水期的水深。

n*****8
发帖数: 1
147
长江流域出现干旱河床暴露,说白了就是三峡大坝蓄水不给下游,然后偷偷的运水到北
京天津。到8月份洪水期间,三峡大坝不敢蓄积高水位怕大坝塌,就放洪水下去。其实
就是冬季长江枯水期南水北调,长江洪水期,中下游老百姓自己去抗着。
现在中国媒体都不敢报道长江的水深了,就用水位这种相对的数据,水位需要知道水准
和高乘的数据,所以中国媒体说的就是糊弄长江流域老百姓。
n*****8
发帖数: 1
148
修三峡大坝说是为了防洪,其实就是忽悠,背后就是为了南水北调。
n*****8
发帖数: 1
149
修三峡大坝更不可能防旱,三峡大坝本身导致中下游大面积干旱。中国媒体就是这样颠
倒黑白。中宣部大忽悠。
w********2
发帖数: 632
150
进入2011年以来,长江中下游地区一些省份陆续传出旱情,地处华中、华东地区的湖北
、湖南、江西、安徽、江苏等省份均发生不同程度的严重干旱。成千上万亩禾苗干涸、
大片土地干裂,水库蓄水告急,系长江支流的江河湖泊多数出现断流干涸,大量鱼虾蟹
死亡。
“三峡大坝建成后,将水都截住了,再遇到天气不下雨,就更缺水了,苦了我们。”宜
昌点军区李家河村村民向记者表示。
露湖底现龟裂 鱼虾蟹贝渴死
鄱阳湖、洞庭湖、太湖、洪泽湖、洪湖五大淡水湖出现严重干旱,可见湖底干裂。其中
第一大淡水湖鄱阳湖,周边已裸露大片湖滩,洪湖约5万亩的水域出现湖底裸露,已无
法行船,部分区域出现大面积鱼类死亡。
江西省彭泽县太泊湖水产养殖场业主对大纪元记者介绍,该地与安徽交界,旱情严重。
正常情况下现在正值生长期,因为缺水,湖水已经不能满足鱼的产卵需求,全部流产。
该养殖场以生产花白鲢为主,正常年产量为300万斤,今年损失惨重。
彭泽县水产养殖场管理人员称,方湖也因严重缺水,导致鱼苗产卵差,没有鱼苗,“一
般要从长江引水,现在长江的水位比方湖内水位还要低,引不过来。”
湖口县江桥乡兰亭村一养殖户表示,湖口县的养殖户非常多,产量大,目前鄱阳湖只有
一点点水,再不下雨,鱼就全部死掉了。
湖北的洪湖也遭遇特大干旱,洪湖湿地自然保护区管理局统计,洪湖有水面积约53万亩
,由于持续干旱,目前有水面积已不足40万亩,1/4的湖区干裂。洪湖有以船为“家”
的渔民3000多户,他们大多住在离岸3公里以内的湖中,持续的干旱让湖岸向湖心推移
了三四公里,绝大多数渔家成了“旱家”。
粮棉减产
具“鱼米之乡”美名的华中、华东地区是大米等粮食作物的主要种植区,持续的干旱,
使今年的农作物产量受到威胁。
江西省九江市星子县蓼花镇蓼花村刘村长介绍,全村有3000多人,种植水稻千余亩,棉
花几百亩,另种有油菜等,因周边水库、塘堰面临干涸,无法取水。“江西是全国产粮
重地,继续旱,就是绝收了,损失很大,鄱阳湖干旱,对周边地区的渔业、种植业影响
巨大。”
江西文桥乡高家村一村民表示,因为缺水,地里种的棉花,正值抽芽的时节,都憋住了
,水稻下地不久,也未长出苗。这样下去,今年生活都维持不住,要考虑去外地打工维
生。
湖北宜昌当阳坝陵八字门村一村民称,自己种有十几亩稻田,也因旱情严重,早稻现已
不生长,全村有4000余村民,家家种有稻谷。据她介绍,目前庄稼已受损,等到8月份
稻谷抽穗的时候,如果还是没有水,那就彻底绝收了。
据湖北省官方的最新数据显示,截至5月22日24时统计,湖北省除神农架林区外,仍有
16个市州的80个县市区受旱农田1334.5万亩,76.1万人、17.5万头大牲畜饮水困难,分
别比雨前减少3个县市、531万亩农田,减幅不大。
记者另从重庆市巫溪县政府救灾办处获悉,全县旱情很重,农民耕地严重缺
水。该县土城乡一居民介绍,该乡旱情为全县之重。当地用水来自于大宁河源头水,大
宁河是长江支流,目前源头水非常少。“也是因为受三峡大坝蓄水影响,对我们这里影
响很大,造成干旱缺水。”据悉,全乡大约有12,000余人,以种植玉米、土豆、红薯为
主。
相关主题
中铁大桥局承建的武汉第八座长江大桥开工中国的水路客运为什么那么弱?
京沪高铁“第一桥”大胜关长江大桥通车武汉长江大桥迎55岁生日 被撞70余次仍然无恙
老毛还是湖南人的血性南京长江大桥威武
w********2
发帖数: 632
151
三峡工程再陷舆论漩涡,被指三峡水库用于发电,不拯救干涸的土地和枯萎的庄稼。大
旱中五大湖集体“深度见底”;长江水位非常低,如同一条水沟。三峡工程内部人士对
媒体承认,三峡工程部分是人祸。在长江中下游,记者采访中,人人都在指责三峡大坝
酿成大旱。旱情中三峡工程成民意宣泄口。
长江变沟 民间齐声讨三峡大坝
在今年遭灾最严重的“千湖之省”湖北,干涸的湖泊、枯竭的河流、龟裂的土地以及绝
收的粮食让人们欲哭无泪。近日,南方日报报导,武汉出租车司机赵先生愤怒地说:“
上面截我们的水,‘南水北调’还要把丹江口水库的水往北方送。本来土地是要靠水来
滋润的,现在两头榨干我们,你说湖北不旱才怪!连傻子都知道!”
中国地震局地质研究所研究员高建国认为,“三峡工程的运行,打破了湖水原有的吞吐
规律:以鄱阳湖为例,每年10月是三峡大坝蓄水期,此时正值江西省枯水季节,鄱阳湖
急需江水补充,但结果是,非但得不到补充,反而被长江低水位拉空”。
近日,长江水利委员会一名官员对记者表示,目前长江已变得像一条水沟一样,水位非
常低,正常水位时,打开闸门,长江水可以通过灌溉渠道放到农田里,长江中下游主要
种植水稻,需水量大。现在长江水位太低,要用大型水泵抽水灌溉,又一直不下雨,所
以长江水位更低。航运都成问题。往年这个时候水漫金山,今年反过来了,没想到要抗
旱啊。如果再不下雨的话,更不得了,到时候连地下水都没有了。
湖北宜昌的小马对记者表示,他和朋友去长江边玩耍,看到河床都露出来了,水很窄很
低。景象很惨。湖北荆州洪湖养殖渔民表示,洪湖见底了,长江的水位仍比洪湖低1米。
据报导,长江武汉段的河床人可以走过。受持续干旱影响,长江水面不断下降,武汉段
裸露的河床如同沙漠般干涸。在三峡库区所在地秭归县,不少地方出现庄稼颗粒无收的
局面,12个乡镇20多万人口受灾。长江中下游的干旱是50年一遇、直接经济损失超过
150亿元。
日前,湖北荆州市防汛办负责人邓克道对南都记者说:“现在荆州全市湖泊、渠道、水
库等蓄水基本就快用完了。现在只能靠从加大放水量的长江里抽水,保中稻和农业灌溉
。”而据荆州市委宣传部外宣办主任熊高新称,三峡加大放水后,虽然长江荆江段水位
有所上升,但“水位还是太低,不好提”。
中国在近20年发生过14次大旱,10次是在三峡大坝动工以后。2006年,三峡大坝全线建
成后,长江不少断面出现“百年一遇”的低水位,重庆、鄱阳湖、洞庭湖等地区都出现
“历年罕见”的干旱。2009年整个三峡工程竣工后,9月份长江中下游特别是洞庭湖、
鄱阳湖、湘江、赣江又发生严重旱情。
面对舆论压力,三峡工程主要设计者、中国工程院院士郑守仁公开称:不能一遇到极端
气候就怪罪三峡工程。在干旱中,当局御用专家又称,三峡工程新增了一项抗旱功能,
立即遭到相关水利专家和民众的批驳。
内部人士:三峡问题 部分是人祸
近日,时代周报采访长江委长江流域水资源保护局原局长翁立达,他承认三峡暴露出来
的很多问题,早在三峡工程论证预计内。
时代周报报导,现在,“逆调节”这个词语越来越多地用在三峡上面,即缺水旱季它要
保持蓄水高程关闸拦水,中下游越是缺水它越是少放水;洪涝季节上下游顶不住时它有
自身的算盘,不淹下游就选择淹上游,去年洪涝季节是先淹重庆,后来又因库容有限不
得不泄洪,让下游抗洪雪上加霜。
对此,翁立达称,三峡是个跨部门、跨省的工程,牵扯的部门很多,很难协调。而三峡
上面也有很多水电站,每个水电站都有自己的考虑,也不直接受省、市的管辖,这就很
麻烦。而发电跟供水、防汛本来就是存在着矛盾的,这需要一个统一的调度。但现在,
没有部门能指挥这些水电站。
人们都说这次下游干旱,三峡水库放水太晚了。翁立达说,发电的总希望自己多发电,
多赚钱,那他们就要多储水。湖北省总不可能叫他们去放水吧,重庆市也不可能叫他们
去放水吧。必须得国家防总出面,他们才肯放水。
最后被问到,三峡出问题是否人祸,翁立达回答:有一部分是。
三峡迷局在于“利”
据南方日报报导,三峡,自从开始被论证的那一天起,它就一直处在舆论漩涡之中,而
这一切都离不开一个字——“利”。媒体质疑,已经拥有一家上市公司的三峡集团,甚
至开始促成旗下地产公司的上市,这会否使原本声称需兼顾防洪、航运效益的三峡大坝
成为某些“利益集团”的摇钱树?
资料显示,三峡大坝工程静态总投资为954.6亿元(以1993年底物价计算),截至2009
年底,三峡工程累计完成动态投资1,849亿元。
根据三峡集团下属上市公司长江电力的2010年年报,三峡—葛洲坝梯级电站去年实现营
业收入218.80亿元,营业利润87.83亿元。按照比例计算,三峡电站2010年实现营收183
.48亿元,营业利润约73.65亿元。
受访的长江水利委员会的官员表示,三峡水库利用水位落差发电。最近三峡水库给下游
“补水”,它的损失是很大的。
旅德水利专家王维洛统计,2010年仅中国百姓从电费中缴纳的三峡基金(包括其后续基
金)已经达到1,100亿人民币,超过三峡工程总投资的一半以上。但是三峡工程的发电
利润并不属于中国老百姓。
就在上个月,中共国务院首次公开声明承认三峡大坝已造成“亟需解决”的社会和环境
问题。几天后,国家审计署公布了对中国长江三峡集团进行审计发现的31个财务问题。
w********2
发帖数: 632
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南方日报报导,武汉出租车司机赵先生愤怒地说:“上面截我们的水,‘南水北调’还
要把丹江口水库的水往北方送。本来土地是要靠水来滋润的,现在两头榨干我们,你说
湖北不旱才怪!连傻子都知道!”
w********2
发帖数: 632
153
时代周报报导,现在,“逆调节”这个词语越来越多地用在三峡上面,即缺水旱季它要
保持蓄水高程关闸拦水,中下游越是缺水它越是少放水;洪涝季节上下游顶不住时它有
自身的算盘,不淹下游就选择淹上游,去年洪涝季节是先淹重庆,后来又因库容有限不
得不泄洪,让下游抗洪雪上加霜。
w********2
发帖数: 632
154
和哥分析的一样,三峡大坝就是非汛期南水北调,汛期洪水太高怕冲垮大坝放洪。所谓
防洪防旱都是借口,南水北调才是真正的意图,长江中下游大旱,因为长江汉水改道了。

【在 w********2 的大作中提到】
: 时代周报报导,现在,“逆调节”这个词语越来越多地用在三峡上面,即缺水旱季它要
: 保持蓄水高程关闸拦水,中下游越是缺水它越是少放水;洪涝季节上下游顶不住时它有
: 自身的算盘,不淹下游就选择淹上游,去年洪涝季节是先淹重庆,后来又因库容有限不
: 得不泄洪,让下游抗洪雪上加霜。

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